Nucleophosmin is a binding partner of nucleostemin in human osteosarcoma cells.

Program in Cell Dynamics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Molecular biology of the cell (Impact Factor: 5.98). 08/2008; 19(7):2870-5. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E08-02-0128
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nucleostemin (NS) is expressed in the nucleoli of adult and embryonic stem cells and in many tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, nucleostemin is recovered with the tumor suppressor p53, and more recently we have demonstrated that nucleostemin exerts its role in cell cycle progression via a p53-dependent pathway. Here, we report that in human osteosarcoma cells, nucleostemin interacts with nucleophosmin, a nucleolar protein believed to possess oncogenic potential. Nucleostemin (NS) and nucleophosmin (NPM) displayed an extremely high degree of colocalization in the granular component of the nucleolus during interphase, and both proteins associated with prenucleolar bodies in late mitosis before the reformation of nucleoli. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that NS and NPM co-reside in complexes, and yeast two-hybrid experiments confirmed that they are interactive proteins, revealing the NPM-interactive region to be the 46-amino acid N-terminal domain of NS. In bimolecular fluorescence complementation studies, bright nucleolar signals were observed, indicating that these two proteins directly interact in the nucleolus in vivo. These results support the notion that cell cycle regulatory proteins congress and interact in the nucleolus, adding to the emerging concept that this nuclear domain has functions beyond ribosome production.

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    ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) controls cell growth and survival downstream of integrin-matrix receptors. Upon adhesion loss or FAK inhibition, FAK can translocate to the nucleus. The nucleolus is a non-membrane nuclear structure that regulates ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. Nucleostemin (NS), a nucleolar-localized protein, modulates cell cycle progression, stemness, and three-dimensional tumor spheroid formation. The signaling pathways that regulate NS levels in tumors remain undefined. Human breast carcinoma cells were evaluated for growth in culture (adherent and anchorage-independent spheroid) and as orthotopic tumors. FAK signaling was evaluated by pharmacological FAK inhibitor addition (PF-271, IC50 ~ 0.1 μM) and by small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown followed by re-expression of FAK wildtype (WT) or a kinase-dead (KD, K454R) FAK point mutant. Immunoblotting was used to evaluate FAK, NS, nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, and nucleolin levels. Total and phosphospecific antibody imunoblotting were used to detect changes in FAK, Akt kinase (Akt also known as protein kinase B), and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation, a translation repressor protein and target of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex. Immunohistochemical, co-immunoprecipitation, and cellular fractionation analyses were used to evaluate FAK association with nucleoli. Pharmacological (0.1 μM PF-271) or genetic inhibition of FAK activity prevents MDA-MB-231 and 4T1L breast carcinoma growth as spheroids and as orthotopic tumors. FAK inhibition triggers proteasome-mediated decreased NS levels but no changes in other nucleolar proteins such as B23 or nucleolin. Active FAK was associated with purified nucleoli of anchorage-independent cells and present within nucleoli of human invasive ductal carcinoma tumor samples. FAK co-immunoprecipitated with B23 that binds NS and a complex between FAK, NS, Akt, and mTOR was detected. Constitutively-active Akt kinase promoted tumor spheroid growth, stabilized NS levels, and promoted p65 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in the presence of inhibited FAK. Rapamycin lowered NS levels and inhibited p65 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in cells with activated Akt-mTOR signaling. FAK signaling occurs in the nucleolus, active FAK protects NS, and Akt-mTOR pathway regulates NS protein stability needed for breast carcinoma spheroid and tumor growth.
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    ABSTRACT: Endopolyploidy and genomic instability are shared features of both stress-induced cellular senescence and malignant growth. Here, we examined these facets in the widely used normal human fibroblast model of senescence, IMR90. At the presenescence stage, a small (2-7%) proportion of cells overcome the 4n-G1 checkpoint, simultaneously inducing self-renewal (NANOG-positivity), the DNA damage response (DDR; γ-H2AX-positive foci), and senescence (p16inka4a- and p21CIP1-positivity) signalling, some cells reach octoploid DNA content and divide. All of these markers initially appear and partially colocalise in the perinucleolar compartment. Further, with development of senescence and accumulation of p16inka4a and p21CIP1, NANOG is downregulated in most cells. The cells increasingly arrest in the 4n-G1 fraction, completely halt divisions and ultimately degenerate. A positive link between DDR, self-renewal, and senescence signalling is initiated in the cells overcoming the tetraploidy barrier, indicating that cellular and molecular context of induced tetraploidy during this period of presenescence is favourable for carcinogenesis.
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    ABSTRACT: The life of the nucleolus has proven to be more colorful and multifaceted than had been envisioned a decade ago. A large number of proteins found in this subnuclear compartment have no identifiable tie either to the ribosome biosynthetic pathway or to the other newly established activities occurring within the nucleolus. The questions of how and why these proteins end up in this subnuclear compartment remain unanswered and are the focus of intense current interest. This review discusses our thoughts on the discovery of nonribosomal proteins in the nucleolus.
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