Central nervous system neurodegeneration and tinnitus: a clinical experience. Part II: translational neurovascular theory of neurodegenerative CNS disease and tinnitus.
ABSTRACT The translation of a neurovascular hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease to subjective idiopathic tinnitus (SIT) is presented as a challenge to the predominantly sensorineural view of SIT and its clinical application for tinnitus treatment. The concept of neurovascular dysfunction and neurodegeneration (ND) in SIT patients has been proposed and reported as an etiology in a particular subset of tinnitus patients with a diagnosis of medical-audiological tinnitus, through a medical-audiological tinnitus patient protocol, to be a predominantly central-type, severe, disabling SIT (n = 54 of 96). A medical-audiological ND tinnitus profile was the basis for selection of 18 SIT patients (n = 18 of 54) for nuclear medicine brain imaging (i.e., single-photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography, or both). Objective findings were reported in 16 of this cohort of 18 SIT patients selected for nuclear medicine imaging (88.9%). Classification of central nervous system (CNS) ND and tinnitus differentiated between (1) ND, nonspecific and of unknown etiology; (2) ND manifested by perfusion asymmetries in brain associated with ischemia (n = 11 of 18); and (3) ND CNS disease consistent with nuclear medicine criteria for senile dementia Alzheimer's-type disease (n = 5 of 18). The diagnosis was associated with cerebrovascular disease (n = 16 of 18). The identification of pathological processes of inflammation and ischemia, linked to ND, in a particular cohort of SIT patients may provide a basis for establishing the medical significance and treatment of SIT and influence the clinical course of the tinnitus.
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Article: Otology versus Otosociology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Otology concerns the biological study of ear alterations and diseases, solely. So, the diagnosis of audiovestibular diseases tends to be idiopathic or is based on theoretical concepts such as idiopathic sudden deafness, Ménière disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, tinnitus, hyperacusis, or idiopathic facial paralysis. The treatment for these pathologies is symptomatic. Otosociology takes the aetiology and pathogenesis of the ear and situates them within the social and cultural environment of the patient. Then, audiovestibular disease is based on evidence, and the treatment options seek to solve the causes and consequences produced. Otosociology should be considered as a new discipline. Otosociology came into being since otology does not provide definitive solutions for the audiovestibular alterations produced from the point of view of the ear, whereas otosociology finds these solutions within the social/cultural environment of the patient. Where otology emphasises the diseases of the ear, otosociology deals with social manifestations. Where otology deals with idiopathic diseases, otosociology deals with causes and pathogeny produced by interactions in the social and cultural surroundings of the patient. Where otology offers symptomatic treatment, otosociology offers treatment of causes and consequences. Otosociology can fill significant voids in audiovestibular processes from the perspective of the patient's social environment.ISRN otolaryngology. 01/2012; 2012:145317.
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ABSTRACT: Tinnitus and hyperacusis are common symptoms of excessive auditory perception in the general population; however, their anatomical substrates and disease associations continue to be defined. with semantic dementia (SemD) frequently report tinnitus and hyperacusis but the significance and basis for these symptoms have not been elucidated. 43 patients with a diagnosis of SemD attending a specialist cognitive disorders clinic were retrospectively studied. 14 patients (32% of the cohort) reported at least moderately severe chronic auditory symptoms: seven had tinnitus and a further seven had hyperacusis, and all had brain MRI while symptomatic. MRI data from SemD patients with and without auditory symptoms were compared using voxel based morphometry in order to identify neuroanatomical associations of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Compared with SemD patients with no history of auditory symptoms, patients with tinnitus or hyperacusis had relative preservation of grey matter in the posterior superior temporal lobe and reduced grey matter in the orbitofrontal cortex and medial geniculate nucleus. Tinnitus and hyperacusis may be a significant issue in SemD. Neuroanatomical evidence in SemD supports previous work implicating a distributed cortico-subcortical auditory and limbic network in the pathogenesis of these abnormal auditory percepts.Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2011; 82(11):1274-8. · 4.87 Impact Factor
Article: New trends in tinnitus management.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tinnitus is a perception of sound in absence of sound stimulation. Tinnitus in many cases cannot be eliminated by conventional medical treatment with drugs or surgery. Some people who begin to notice tinnitus, whether spontaneous or induced by noise, trauma or other insult, will experience spontaneous resolution, but many patients will have persistent tinnitus. For some of them, tinnitus sensation will be joined by tinnitus suffering, with many adverse effects like anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. For these tinnitus sufferers the psychological and acoustic approach proposed by the Tinnitus Retraining Therapy and Acoustic Desensitization Protocol may be helpful. Periodically new treatments are suggested like low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and sequential phase shift sound cancellation treatment based on the frequency and loudness matching of the tinnitus. The aim of this work is to review modern considerations for the treatment of tinnitus.The Open Neurology Journal 01/2011; 5:12-7.