Central nervous system neurodegeneration and tinnitus: a clinical experience. Part II: translational neurovascular theory of neurodegenerative CNS disease and tinnitus.

Department of Otolaryngology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA.
The international tinnitus journal 02/2008; 14(1):43-51.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The translation of a neurovascular hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease to subjective idiopathic tinnitus (SIT) is presented as a challenge to the predominantly sensorineural view of SIT and its clinical application for tinnitus treatment. The concept of neurovascular dysfunction and neurodegeneration (ND) in SIT patients has been proposed and reported as an etiology in a particular subset of tinnitus patients with a diagnosis of medical-audiological tinnitus, through a medical-audiological tinnitus patient protocol, to be a predominantly central-type, severe, disabling SIT (n = 54 of 96). A medical-audiological ND tinnitus profile was the basis for selection of 18 SIT patients (n = 18 of 54) for nuclear medicine brain imaging (i.e., single-photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography, or both). Objective findings were reported in 16 of this cohort of 18 SIT patients selected for nuclear medicine imaging (88.9%). Classification of central nervous system (CNS) ND and tinnitus differentiated between (1) ND, nonspecific and of unknown etiology; (2) ND manifested by perfusion asymmetries in brain associated with ischemia (n = 11 of 18); and (3) ND CNS disease consistent with nuclear medicine criteria for senile dementia Alzheimer's-type disease (n = 5 of 18). The diagnosis was associated with cerebrovascular disease (n = 16 of 18). The identification of pathological processes of inflammation and ischemia, linked to ND, in a particular cohort of SIT patients may provide a basis for establishing the medical significance and treatment of SIT and influence the clinical course of the tinnitus.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To provide to the tinnitus professional a rationale for establishing accuracy in tinnitus diagnosis and the selection of modalities of therapy (i.e., medication, instrumentation, and surgery) for attempting tinnitus relief for patients with tinnitus diagnosed by completion of a medical-audiological tinnitus protocol (MATPP) and clinical course and found to be subjective idiopathic tinnitus of the severe disabling type (SIT). BACKGROUND: The completion of a MATPP has been recommended since 1977 for each tinnitus patient in an attempt to establish an accurate diagnosis. A tinnitus-targeted therapy (TTT), a combined treatment of medication and instrumentation focusing on pharmacotherapy, has evolved from our ongoing clinical experience since 1977 (now in excess of 10,000 SIT patients) [1-4]. Principles for SIT treatment have evolved from the TTT experience that provides a rationale for attempting tinnitus relief. In this report, the term tinnitus refers to SIT. METHOD: The strategies of TTT are based on the clinical translation for SIT diagnosis and treatment of (1) fundamentals of neuro-otological diagnosis; (2) fundamentals of sensory physiology; (3) extrapolation for treatment of known underlying neurochemistries from nuclear medicine imaging results e.g. single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography; (4) hypothesis of mechanism of tinnitus production , Tinnitus Dysynchrony Synchrony Theory (TDST) [5] , and hypothesis of the transformation-transition of the sensation of an aberrant auditory sensation-tinnitus (i.e., sensory component)-to one of affect (i.e., the emotional-behavioral component), Final Common Pathway of Tinnitus (FCP)[8]; and (5) innovative application of drug therapies designed for indications other than tinnitus [2,3]. ResuLTS AND CONCLUSION: The ongoing clinical application of a rationale based on principles of diagnosis and treatment for SIT, which has evolved from our TTT clinical experience in SIT patients, continues to result in long-term tinnitus relief: in excess of 1 year in approximately 75% to 85% with medication and in 10% to 15% with instrumentation. SIT patients resistant to therapy persist at 10% to 15%.
    The international tinnitus journal 01/2010; 16(1):73-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Otology concerns the biological study of ear alterations and diseases, solely. So, the diagnosis of audiovestibular diseases tends to be idiopathic or is based on theoretical concepts such as idiopathic sudden deafness, Ménière disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, tinnitus, hyperacusis, or idiopathic facial paralysis. The treatment for these pathologies is symptomatic. Otosociology takes the aetiology and pathogenesis of the ear and situates them within the social and cultural environment of the patient. Then, audiovestibular disease is based on evidence, and the treatment options seek to solve the causes and consequences produced. Otosociology should be considered as a new discipline. Otosociology came into being since otology does not provide definitive solutions for the audiovestibular alterations produced from the point of view of the ear, whereas otosociology finds these solutions within the social/cultural environment of the patient. Where otology emphasises the diseases of the ear, otosociology deals with social manifestations. Where otology deals with idiopathic diseases, otosociology deals with causes and pathogeny produced by interactions in the social and cultural surroundings of the patient. Where otology offers symptomatic treatment, otosociology offers treatment of causes and consequences. Otosociology can fill significant voids in audiovestibular processes from the perspective of the patient's social environment.
    ISRN otolaryngology. 01/2012; 2012:145317.