The translation of a neurovascular hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease to subjective idiopathic tinnitus (SIT) is presented as a challenge to the predominantly sensorineural view of SIT and its clinical application for tinnitus treatment. The concept of neurovascular dysfunction and neurodegeneration (ND) in SIT patients has been proposed and reported as an etiology in a particular subset of tinnitus patients with a diagnosis of medical-audiological tinnitus, through a medical-audiological tinnitus patient protocol, to be a predominantly central-type, severe, disabling SIT (n = 54 of 96). A medical-audiological ND tinnitus profile was the basis for selection of 18 SIT patients (n = 18 of 54) for nuclear medicine brain imaging (i.e., single-photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography, or both). Objective findings were reported in 16 of this cohort of 18 SIT patients selected for nuclear medicine imaging (88.9%). Classification of central nervous system (CNS) ND and tinnitus differentiated between (1) ND, nonspecific and of unknown etiology; (2) ND manifested by perfusion asymmetries in brain associated with ischemia (n = 11 of 18); and (3) ND CNS disease consistent with nuclear medicine criteria for senile dementia Alzheimer's-type disease (n = 5 of 18). The diagnosis was associated with cerebrovascular disease (n = 16 of 18). The identification of pathological processes of inflammation and ischemia, linked to ND, in a particular cohort of SIT patients may provide a basis for establishing the medical significance and treatment of SIT and influence the clinical course of the tinnitus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tinnitus is a perception of sound in absence of sound stimulation. Tinnitus in many cases cannot be eliminated by conventional medical treatment with drugs or surgery. Some people who begin to notice tinnitus, whether spontaneous or induced by noise, trauma or other insult, will experience spontaneous resolution, but many patients will have persistent tinnitus. For some of them, tinnitus sensation will be joined by tinnitus suffering, with many adverse effects like anxiety, depression and sleep disorders. For these tinnitus sufferers the psychological and acoustic approach proposed by the Tinnitus Retraining Therapy and Acoustic Desensitization Protocol may be helpful. Periodically new treatments are suggested like low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and sequential phase shift sound cancellation treatment based on the frequency and loudness matching of the tinnitus. The aim of this work is to review modern considerations for the treatment of tinnitus.
The Open Neurology Journal 03/2011; 5(1):12-7. DOI:10.2174/1874205X01105010012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To provide to the tinnitus professional a rationale for establishing accuracy in tinnitus diagnosis and the selection of modalities of therapy (i.e., medication, instrumentation, and surgery) for attempting tinnitus relief for patients with tinnitus diagnosed by completion of a medical-audiological tinnitus protocol (MATPP) and clinical course and found to be subjective idiopathic tinnitus of the severe disabling type (SIT). BACKGROUND: The completion of a MATPP has been recommended since 1977 for each tinnitus patient in an attempt to establish an accurate diagnosis. A tinnitus-targeted therapy (TTT), a combined treatment of medication and instrumentation focusing on pharmacotherapy, has evolved from our ongoing clinical experience since 1977 (now in excess of 10,000 SIT patients) [1-4]. Principles for SIT treatment have evolved from the TTT experience that provides a rationale for attempting tinnitus relief. In this report, the term tinnitus refers to SIT. METHOD: The strategies of TTT are based on the clinical translation for SIT diagnosis and treatment of (1) fundamentals of neuro-otological diagnosis; (2) fundamentals of sensory physiology; (3) extrapolation for treatment of known underlying neurochemistries from nuclear medicine imaging results e.g. single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography; (4) hypothesis of mechanism of tinnitus production , Tinnitus Dysynchrony Synchrony Theory (TDST)  , and hypothesis of the transformation-transition of the sensation of an aberrant auditory sensation-tinnitus (i.e., sensory component)-to one of affect (i.e., the emotional-behavioral component), Final Common Pathway of Tinnitus (FCP); and (5) innovative application of drug therapies designed for indications other than tinnitus [2,3]. ResuLTS AND CONCLUSION: The ongoing clinical application of a rationale based on principles of diagnosis and treatment for SIT, which has evolved from our TTT clinical experience in SIT patients, continues to result in long-term tinnitus relief: in excess of 1 year in approximately 75% to 85% with medication and in 10% to 15% with instrumentation. SIT patients resistant to therapy persist at 10% to 15%.
The international tinnitus journal 01/2010; 16(1):73-85.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tinnitus and hyperacusis are common symptoms of excessive auditory perception in the general population; however, their anatomical substrates and disease associations continue to be defined.
with semantic dementia (SemD) frequently report tinnitus and hyperacusis but the significance and basis for these symptoms have not been elucidated.
43 patients with a diagnosis of SemD attending a specialist cognitive disorders clinic were retrospectively studied. 14 patients (32% of the cohort) reported at least moderately severe chronic auditory symptoms: seven had tinnitus and a further seven had hyperacusis, and all had brain MRI while symptomatic. MRI data from SemD patients with and without auditory symptoms were compared using voxel based morphometry in order to identify neuroanatomical associations of tinnitus and hyperacusis.
Compared with SemD patients with no history of auditory symptoms, patients with tinnitus or hyperacusis had relative preservation of grey matter in the posterior superior temporal lobe and reduced grey matter in the orbitofrontal cortex and medial geniculate nucleus.
Tinnitus and hyperacusis may be a significant issue in SemD. Neuroanatomical evidence in SemD supports previous work implicating a distributed cortico-subcortical auditory and limbic network in the pathogenesis of these abnormal auditory percepts.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2011; 82(11):1274-8. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235473 · 6.81 Impact Factor
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