Nicotiana benthamiana: its history and future as a model for plant-pathogen interactions.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40546, USA.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (Impact Factor: 4.46). 09/2008; 21(8):1015-26. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-21-8-1015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nicotiana benthamiana is the most widely used experimental host in plant virology, due mainly to the large number of diverse plant viruses that can successfully infect it. Additionally, N. benthamiana is susceptible to a wide variety of other plant-pathogenic agents (such as bacteria, oomycetes, fungi, and so on), making this species a cornerstone of host-pathogen research, particularly in the context of innate immunity and defense signaling. Moreover, because it can be genetically transformed and regenerated with good efficiency and is amenable to facile methods for virus-induced gene silencing or transient protein expression, N. benthamiana is rapidly gaining popularity in plant biology, particularly in studies requiring protein localization, interaction, or plant-based systems for protein expression and purification. Paradoxically, despite being an indispensable research model, little is known about the origins, genetic variation, or ecology of the N. benthamiana accessions currently used by the research community. In addition to addressing these latter topics, the purpose of this review is to provide information regarding sources for tools and reagents that can be used to support research in N. benthamiana. Finally, we propose that N. benthamiana is well situated to become a premier plant cell biology model, particularly for the virology community, who as a group were the first to recognize the potential of this unique Australian native.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Drought stress response is a complex trait regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in tobacco. Since the 1990s, many studies have shown that miRNAs act in many ways to regulate target expression in plant growth, development and stress response. The recent draft genome sequence of Nicotiana benthamiana has provided a framework for Digital Gene Expression (DGE) and small RNA sequencing to understand patterns of transcription in the context of plant response to environmental stress. We OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 5715 sequenced and analyzed three Digital Gene Expression (DGE) libraries from roots of normal and drought-stressed tobacco plants, and four small RNA populations from roots, stems and leaves of control or drought-treated tobacco plants, respectively. We identified 276 candidate drought responsive genes (DRGs) with sequence similarities to 64 known DRGs from other model plant crops, 82 were transcription factors (TFs) including WRKY, NAC, ERF and bZIP families. Of these tobacco DRGs, 54 differentially expressed DRGs included 21 TFs, which belonged to 4 TF families such as NAC (6), MYB (4), ERF (10), and bZIP (1). Additionally, we confirmed expression of 39 known miRNA families (122 members) and five conserved miRNA families, which showed differential regulation under drought stress. Targets of miRNAs were further surveyed based on a recently published study, of which ten targets were DRGs. An integrated gene regulatory network is proposed for the molecular mechanisms of tobacco root response to drought stress using differentially expressed DRGs, the changed expression profiles of miRNAs and their target transcripts. This network analysis serves as a reference for future studies on tobacco response stresses such as drought, cold and heavy metals.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 03/2015; 16(3):5714-5740. DOI:10.3390/ijms16035714 · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) that infects a wide range of plants. ToLCNDV has emerged as an important pathogen and a serious threat to tomato production in India. A comparative and molecular analysis of ToLCNDV pathogenesis was performed on diverse solanaceous hosts (Capsicum annuum, Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, and Solanum lycopersicum). N. benthamiana was found to be the most susceptible host, whereas C. annuum showed resistance against an isolate of ToLCNDV collected in New Delhi from tomato (GenBank accession no. U15015 and U15017). S. lycopersicum and N. tabacum developed conspicuous symptoms and allowed virus to accumulate to significantly high titers. The viral DNA level was concurrent with symptom severity. ToLCNDV-specific siRNA levels were directly proportional to the amount of viral DNA. To investigate the basis for the differences in response of these hosts to ToLCNDV, a comparative expression analysis of selected defense-related genes was carried out. The results indicated differences in expression levels of genes involved in the posttranscriptional gene silencing machinery (RDR6, AGO1 and SGS3) as well as basal host defense responses (nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] proteins and lipid transfer protein [LTP]). Among these, expression of NBS-LRR genes was found to be significantly higher in C. annuum following ToLCNDV infection. Our analyses suggest that the expression of host defense responses determines the level of ToLCNDV accumulation and degree of symptom development.
    Archives of Virology 04/2015; 160(6). DOI:10.1007/s00705-015-2399-x · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Virology 03/2015; 479-480. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.034 · 3.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 30, 2014