Rad51 protein stimulates the branch migration activity of Rad54 protein.
ABSTRACT The Rad51 and Rad54 proteins play important roles during homologous recombination in eukaryotes. Rad51 forms a nucleoprotein filament on single-stranded DNA and performs the initial steps of double strand break repair. Rad54 belongs to the Swi2/Snf2 family of ATP-dependent DNA translocases. We previously showed that Rad54 promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions. Here we find that human Rad51 (hRad51) significantly stimulates the branch migration activity of hRad54. The stimulation appears to be evolutionarily conserved, as yeast Rad51 also stimulates the branch migration activity of yeast Rad54. We further investigated the mechanism of this stimulation. Our results demonstrate that the stimulation of hRad54-promoted branch migration by hRad51 is driven by specific protein-protein interactions, and the active form of the hRad51 filament is more stimulatory than the inactive one. The current results support the hypothesis that the hRad51 conformation state has a strong effect on interaction with hRad54 and ultimately on the function of hRad54 in homologous recombination.
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ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination is a central pathway to maintain genomic stability and is involved in the repair of DNA damage and replication fork support, as well as accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. Rad54 is a dsDNA-dependent ATPase of the Snf2/Swi2 family of SF2 helicases, although Rad54 lacks classical helicase activity and cannot carry out the strand displacement reactions typical for DNA helicases. Rad54 is a potent and processive motor protein that translocates on dsDNA, potentially executing several functions in recombinational DNA repair. Rad54 acts in concert with Rad51, the central protein of recombination that performs the key reactions of homology search and DNA strand invasion. Here, we will review the role of the Rad54 protein in homologous recombination with an emphasis on mechanistic studies with the yeast and human enzymes. We will discuss how these results relate to in vivo functions of Rad54 during homologous recombination in somatic cells and during meiosis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Snf2/Swi2 ATPase structure and function.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2011; 1809(9):509-23. DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2011.06.006 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hRAD54 gene is a key member of the RAD52 epistasis group involved in repair of double-strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination (HR). Thus, alterations of the normal function of these genes could generate genetic instability, shifting the normal process of the cell cycle, leading the cells to develop into cancer. In this work we analyzed exon 18 of the hRAD54 gene, which has been previously reported by our group to carry a silent polymorphism, 2290 C/T (Ala730Ala), associated to meningiomas. We performed a PCR-SSCP method to detect the polymorphism in 239 samples including leukemia and normal control population. The results revealed that the 2290 C/T polymorphism has frequencies of 0.1 for the leukemia and 0.1 for the control group. These frequencies show no statistical differences. Additionally, we dissected the leukemia group in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to evaluate the polymorphism. The frequencies found in these subgroups were 0.14 for CML and 0.05 for ALL. We found statistically significant differences between CML patients and the control group (p < 0.05) but we did not find significant differences between ALL and the control group (p > 0.05). These results suggest a possible link between the 2290 C/T polymorphism of the hRAD54 gene and CML.Genetics and Molecular Biology 10/2010; 33(4):646-9. DOI:10.1590/S1415-47572010005000095 · 0.88 Impact Factor