Phosphorylation of Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the TAK1 T-loop is required for interleukin (IL)-1-mediated optimal NFkappaB and AP-1 activation as well as IL-6 gene expression.
ABSTRACT TAK1 (transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is activated by various cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1). However, the precise regulation for TAK1 activation at the molecular level is still not fully understood. Here we report that dual phosphorylation of Thr-178 and Thr-184 residues within the kinase activation loop of TAK1 is essential for TAK1-mediated NFkappaB and AP-1 activation. Once co-overexpressed with TAB1, TAK1 mutant with alanine substitution of these two residues fails to activate IKKbeta-mediated NFkappaB and JNK-mediated AP-1, whereas TAK1 mutant with replacement of these two sites with acidic residues acts like the TAK1 wild type. Consistently, TAK1 mutant with alanine substitution of these two residues severely inhibits IL-1-induced NFkappaB and AP-1 activities, whereas TAK1 mutant with replacement of these two sites with acidic residues slightly enhances IL-1-induced NFkappaB and AP-1 activities compared with the TAK1 wild-type. IL-1 induces the phosphorylation of endogenous TAK1 at Thr-178 and Thr-184. Reconstitution of TAK1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblast cells with wild-type TAK1 or a TAK1 mutant containing threonine 178 and 184 to alanine mutations revealed the importance of these two sites in IL-1-mediated IKK-NFkappaB and JNK-AP-1 activation as well as IL-1-induced IL-6 gene expression. Our finding is the first report that substitution of key serine/threonine residues with acidic residues mimics the phosphorylated state of TAK1 and renders TAK1 active during its induced activation.
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ABSTRACT: Heart failure is one of the paramount global causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite this pandemic need, the available clinical counter-measures have not altered substantially in recent decades, most notably in the context of pharmacological interventions. Cell death plays a causal role in heart failure, and its inhibition poses a promising approach that has not been thoroughly explored. In previous approaches to target discovery, clinical failures have reflected a deficiency in mechanistic understanding, and in some instances, failure to systematically translate laboratory findings toward the clinic. Here, we review diverse mouse models of heart failure, with an emphasis on those that identify potential targets for pharmacological inhibition of cell death, and on how their translation into effective therapies might be improved in the future.Current Topics in Developmental Biology 01/2014; 109:171-247. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-397920-9.00002-0 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite their ability to cause septic shock and myocardial dysfunction, components of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls, like lipopolysaccharide, have been shown in numerous studies to induce myocardial protection during ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is another such component recognized by an intracellular receptor, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2. Receptor activation leads to intracellular signals through receptor interacting protein-2 (RIP2) and tumour growth factor-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1). However, little is known about the RIP2/TAK1 pathway in the heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether the RIP2/TAK1 pathway has a cardioprotective role in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. We isolated and subjected wild-type (WT) and RIP2(-/-) mouse hearts to 30 min of global ischaemia and 120 min of reperfusion with or without perfusion of MDP (10 microg/mL) before or after the ischaemic period and determined the infarct size. We examined activation of the TAK1/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) signalling pathway. The effect of TAK1 inhibition on MDP-induced cardioprotection was also evaluated. Exposure to MDP during reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size in WT hearts (from 51.7 +/- 5.6% in control to 38.1 +/- 6.7%, P < 0.05), but not in RIP2(-/-) hearts or in WT hearts with coincident pharmacological inhibition of TAK1. MDP treatment significantly increased the levels of p-TAK1 and p-JNK (Jun N-terminal kinase) and led to NFkappaB activation via phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB in the WT, but not in the RIP2(-/-), myocardium. These results indicate that MDP at reperfusion induced cardioprotection through an RIP2/TAK1-dependent mechanism.Cardiovascular Research 02/2009; 83(2):277-84. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvp055 · 5.81 Impact Factor