Occlusion of neck remnant in experimental rat aneurysms after treatment with platinum- or polyglycolic-polylactic acid-coated coils.
ABSTRACT Neck remnants and aneurysm recurrences are marked limitations of endovascular treatment of cerebral artery aneurysms. We compared the evolution of neck remnants of experimental arterial rat aneurysms after treatment with either platinum- or PGLA-coated coils.
We created 20 standard-size aneurysms in the abdominal aortas of male Wistar rats. Aneurysms were embolized with either PGLA-coated coils or platinum coils, with care taken to leave a neck remnant. Neck remnant size and shape was closely monitored to detect progressive enlargement or occlusion. Using a 4.7 T MR scanner, we acquired high-resolution MR images 6 times during the 4-week follow-up. For quantitative measurements, we used a high-resolution 3D-TOF angiography sequence. Results were verified by endoscopy and histology.
Aneurysms treated with PGLA coils showed, on average, a 12.9% reduction of neck remnant size (P = .044) and significant disappearance of dog ears, the blood-filled spaces between coils and aneurysm wall. The aneurysms treated with platinum coils lacked these changes. In endoscopy, neointima was found to cover both PGLA and platinum coils but was more often incomplete or translucent in the platinum group. In histology, thrombus organization and inflammatory cell infiltration were higher with PGLA.
Use of PGLA-coated coils was followed by a moderate progressive reduction of the neck remnant size and a better angiographic outcome, seen as disappearance of dog ears during follow-up. The rat model proved to be suitable for comparison of different coil types.
- SourceAvailable from: Juhana Frösen[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cellular mechanisms of degeneration and repair preceding rupture of the saccular cerebral artery aneurysm wall need to be elucidated for rational design of growth factor or drug-releasing endovascular devices. Patient records, preoperative vascular imaging studies, and the snap-frozen fundi resected after microsurgical clipping from 66 aneurysms were studied. Immunostainings for markers of smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype, proliferation, and inflammatory cell subtypes and TUNEL reaction were performed. Unruptured (24) and ruptured (42) aneurysms had similar dimensions (median diameter in unruptured 6 mm; median in ruptured 7 mm; P=0.308). We identified 4 basic types of aneurysm wall that associated with rupture: (1) endothelialized wall with linearly organized SMCs (17/66; 42% ruptured), (2) thickened wall with disorganized SMCs (20/66; 55% ruptured), (3) hypocellular wall with either myointimal hyperplasia or organizing luminal thrombosis (14/66; 64% ruptured), and (4) an extremely thin thrombosis-lined hypocellular wall (15/66; 100% ruptured). Apoptosis, de-endothelialization, luminal thrombosis, SMC proliferation, and T-cell and macrophage infiltration associated with rupture. Furthermore, macrophage infiltration associated with SMC proliferation, and both were increased in ruptured aneurysms resected <12 hours from rupture, suggesting that these were not just reactive changes. Before rupture, the wall of saccular cerebral artery aneurysm undergoes morphological changes associated with remodeling of the aneurysm wall. Some of these changes, like SMC proliferation and macrophage infiltration, likely reflect ongoing repair attempts that could be enhanced with pharmacological therapy.Stroke 10/2004; 35(10):2287-93. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acceleration of healing mechanisms is a promising approach to improve current limitations of endovascular aneurysm therapy with the use of platinum coils. We evaluated a new endovascular therapeutic, bioabsorbable polymeric material (BPM), which may promote cellular reaction in the aneurysms. Four different concentrations of lactide/glycolic acid copolymer [poly(D-L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)] (PLGA), 85/15, 75/25, 65/35, and 50/50, were used as BPMs. Sixteen experimental aneurysms were created in 8 swine. Eight-millimeter-long spiral-shaped BPMs were surgically implanted in the aneurysms without tight packing (n=3 for each BPM). Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) were used as control (n=4). The animals were killed 14 days after embolization, and angiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Despite loose packing of aneurysms with BPMs, faster BPMs such as 50/50 or 65/35 PLGA demonstrated more mature collagen formation and fibrosis in the sac and neck of the aneurysm. One aneurysm treated with 65/35 PLGA, 1 treated with 75/25 PLGA, and all 3 treated with 85/15 PLGA showed a neck remnant on angiography. There was a linear relationship between collagen levels and polymer degradation properties (r=-0.9513). This preliminary animal study indicates that acceleration of aneurysm healing with the use of BPM is feasible. This concept can be applied to decrease and perhaps prevent aneurysmal recanalization after endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms.Stroke 05/2002; 33(4):1120-8. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 6% of human beings harbor an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Each year in the United States, >30 000 people suffer a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, resulting in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite the high incidence and catastrophic consequences of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm and the fact that there is considerable evidence that predisposition to intracranial aneurysm has a strong genetic component, very little is understood with regard to the pathology and pathogenesis of this disease. To begin characterizing the molecular pathology of intracranial aneurysm, we used a global gene expression analysis approach (SAGE-Lite) in combination with a novel data-mining approach to perform a high-resolution transcript analysis of a single intracranial aneurysm, obtained from a 3-year-old girl. SAGE-Lite provides a detailed molecular snapshot of a single intracranial aneurysm. These data suggest that, at least in this specific case, aneurysmal dilation results in a highly dynamic cellular environment in which extensive wound healing and tissue/extracellular matrix remodeling are taking place. Specifically, we observed significant overexpression of genes encoding extracellular matrix components (eg, COL3A1, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL6A1, COL6A2, elastin) and genes involved in extracellular matrix turnover (TIMP-3, OSF-2), cell adhesion and antiadhesion (SPARC, hevin), cytokinesis (PNUTL2), and cell migration (tetraspanin-5). Although these are preliminary data, representing analysis of only one individual, we present a unique first insight into the molecular basis of aneurysmal disease and define numerous candidate markers for future biochemical, physiological, and genetic studies of intracranial aneurysm. Products of these genes will be the focus of future studies in wider sample sets.Stroke 04/2001; 32(4):1036-42. · 6.16 Impact Factor