Oleanolic acid and related derivatives as medicinally important compounds.

PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Pharmaceutical Research Center, Karachi, Pakistan.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry (Impact Factor: 1.5). 08/2008; 23(6):739-56. DOI: 10.1080/14756360701633187
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oleanolic acid has been isolated from chloroform extract of Olea ferruginea Royle after removal of organic bases and free acids. The literature survey revealed it to be biologically very important. In this review the biological significance of oleanolic acid and its derivatives has been discussed. The aim of this review is to update current knowledge on oleanolic acid and its natural and semisynthetic analogs, focussing on its cytotoxic, antitumer, antioxidant, anti-inflamatory, anti-HIV, acetyl cholinesterase, alpha-glucosidase, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, spasmolytic activity, anti-angiogenic, antiallergic, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. We present in this review, for the first time, a compilation of the most relevant scientific papers and technical reports of the chemical, pre-clinical and clinical research on the properties of oleanolic acid and its derivatives.

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    ABSTRACT: A wide set of 264 compounds has been semi-synthesized with high yields and purities. These compounds have been obtained through easy synthetic processes based on a solid-phase combinatorial methodology. All the members of this library have one central core of a natural pentacyclic triterpene (oleanolic or maslinic acid) and differ by 6 amino acids, coupled with the carboxyl group at C-28 of the triterpenoid skeleton, and by 10 different acyl groups attached to the hydroxyl groups of the A-ring of these molecules. According to the literature on the outstanding and promising pharmacological activities of other similar terpene derivatives, some of these compounds have been tested for their cytotoxic effects on the proliferation of three cancer cell lines: B16-F10, HT29, and Hep G2. In general, we have found that: around 70% of the compounds tested show cytotoxicity in all three of the cell lines selected; around 60% of the cytotoxic compounds are more effective than their corresponding precursors, i.e. oleanolic (OA) or maslinic (MA) acids; and nearly 50% of the cytotoxic derivatives have IC50 values between 2- to 320-fold lower than their corresponding precursor (OA or MA).
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    ABSTRACT: Bioassay-guided fractionation of Terminalia bentzoe L. leaves methanol extract identified the known triterpene oleanolic acid (1) as its major breast cancer cell migration inhibitor. Further chemical optimization afforded five new (9-12 and 15) and seven known (4-8, 13, and 14) semisynthetic analogues. All compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells migration, proliferation and invasion. The results revealed that 3-O-[N-(3`-chlorobenzenesulfonyl)-carbamoyl]-oleanolic acid (11) and 3-O-[N-(5`-fluorobenzenesulfonyl)-carbamoyl]-oleanolic acid (12) were the most active hits at low μM concentration. Western blot analysis indicated the activity of 1, 11, and 12 might be related, at least in part, to the suppression of Brk/Paxillin/Rac1 signaling pathway. Pharmacophore modeling study was conducted to better understand the common structural binding epitopes important for the antimigratory activity. The sulfonyl carbamoyl moiety with an optimal bulkiness electron deficient phenyl ring is associated with improved activity. This study is the first to discover the antimigratory and anti-invasive activities of oleanolic acid and analogues through targeting the Brk/Paxillin/Rac1 axis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid widely distributed in food and traditional herbal remedies, exhibits diverse therapeutic effects. OA has been subjected to various chemical modifications to optimize its anticancer effect. Among other analogs, 3-O-[N-(p-fluorobenzenesulfonyl)-carbamoyl]-oleanolic acid (PFOA) was semisynthesized from OA. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects of PFOA on MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, BT-474, and T-47D human breast cancer cells. Acute treatment of PFOA inhibited breast cancer cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of PFOA at cytotoxic doses significantly induced apoptosis in cancer cells as shown by flow cytometry analysis. Activation of apoptosis in MCF-7 and BT-474 cells seemed to be initiated through induction of Fas ligand, which resulted in activation of caspase-8 and PARP-1, whereas apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells was initiated by the activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1. The mechanism of apoptosis induction in T-47D involves activation of PARP-1. PFOA decreased the expression of EGFR, HER-2, MET and ERα in human breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that PFOA inhibits cell growth, activates apoptosis, and decreases the expression of key proteins involved in progression of breast cancer.
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