Quality of life as a prognostic factor of overall survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: results from two French clinical trials.
ABSTRACT The aims of our study were to assess quality of life (QoL) as a prognostic factor of overall survival (OS) and to determine whether QoL data improved three prognostic classifications among French patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
We pooled two randomized clinical trials conducted by the Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive in a palliative setting. In each trial QoL was assessed at baseline using the Spitzer QoL Index (0-10). Three prognostic classifications were calculated: Okuda, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer group (BCLC) scores. To explore whether the scores could be improved by including QoL, univariate Cox analyses of all potential baseline predictors were performed. A final multivariate Cox model was constructed including only significant multivariate baseline variables likely to result in improvement of each scoring system. In order to retain the best prognostic variable to add for each score, we compared Akaike information criterion, likelihood ratio, and Harrell's C-index. Cox analyses were stratified for each trial.
Among 538 included patients, QoL at baseline was available for 489 patients (90%). Longer median OS was significantly associated with higher Spitzer scores at baseline, ranging from 2.17 months (Spitzer=3) to 8.93 months (Spitzer=10). Variables retained in the multivariate Cox model were: jaundice, hepatomegaly, hepatalgia, portal thrombosis, alphafetoprotein, bilirubin, albumin, small HCC, and Spitzer QoL Index (hazard ratio=0.84 95% CI [0.79-0.90]). According to Harrell's C-index, QoL was the best prognostic variable to add. CLIP plus the Spitzer QoL Index had the most discriminating value (C=0.71).
Our results suggest that QoL is an independent prognostic factor for survival in HCC patients with mainly alcoholic cirrhosis. The prognostic value of CLIP score could be improved by adding Spitzer QOL Index scores.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several prognostic classifications (PCs) have been developed for use in palliative care for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We recently suggested that CLIP combined with WHO PS had the greatest discriminative power. We evaluated the prognostic value of quality of life (QoL) data and whether the latter could improve classification of palliative HCC patients. METHODS: This was a reanalysis from the CHOC trial with an evaluation of the discriminative power for overall survival (OS) of the established CLIP/GRETCH/BCLC/BoBar prognostic systems alone and then in association with each of the following groups of parameters: selected clinical factors, QoL as continuous variables, dichotomized QoL, selected clinical factors and continuous QoL, selected clinical factors and dichotomized QoL. Baseline QoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30. Discriminative power was evaluated with Harrell's C-index and the net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: Quality of Life was available in 79% of the patients (n=271). Univariate analysis revealed that better role functioning (HR=0.991 [0.987-0.995]) and better physical functioning (0.991 [0.984-0.997]) scores were associated with longer survival. In contrast, poorer score for fatigue (1.011 [1.006-1.015]) and diarrhoea (1.008 [1.002-1.013]) were associated with shorter survival. After adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic variables, only better role functioning score (0.993 [0.988-0.998]) was associated with longer survival. Adding oedema, hepatomegaly, fatigue and diarrhoea QoL scales to CLIP resulted in the best performance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that QoL scales are independent prognostic factors for OS in palliative HCC patients. Incorporation of QoL data improved all the studied PCs.Journal of Hepatology 11/2012; · 9.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To test whether longitudinally measured health-related quality of life (HRQL) predicts transplant-related mortality (TRM) in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The predictors of interest were emotional functioning, physical functioning, role functioning, and global HRQL, as rated by the parent about the child up to 6 times over 12 months of follow-up and measured by the Child Health Ratings Inventories. We used joint models, specifically shared parameter models, with time to TRM as the outcome of interest and other causes of mortality as a competing risk, via the JM software package in R. Choosing shared parameter models instead of standard survival models, such as Cox models with time-dependent covariates, enabled us to address measurement error in the HRQL trajectories and appropriately handle missing data. The nonlinear trajectories for each HRQL domain were modeled by random spline functions. The survival submodels were adjusted for baseline patient, family, and transplant characteristics. Hazard ratios per one-half standard deviation difference in emotional, physical, and role functioning, and global HRQL were 0.61 (95 % CI 0.46-0.81; p < 0.001), 0.70 (0.51-0.96; p = 0.03), 0.54 (0.34-0.85; p = 0.007), and 0.57 (0.41-0.79; p < 0.001), respectively. HRQL trajectories were predictive of TRM in pediatric HSCT, even after adjusting the survival outcome for baseline characteristics.Quality of Life Research 10/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor