Prepregnancy obesity prevalence in the United States, 2004–2005
ABSTRACT To provide a current estimate of the prevalence of prepregnancy obesity in the United States.
We analyzed 2004-2005 data from 26 states and New York City (n = 75,403 women) participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, an ongoing, population-based surveillance system that collects information on maternal behaviors associated with pregnancy. Information was obtained from questionnaires self-administered after delivery or from linked birth certificates; prepregnancy body mass index was based on self-reported weight and height. Data were weighted to provide representative estimates of all women delivering a live birth in each particular state.
In this study, about one in five women who delivered were obese; in some state, race/ethnicity, and Medicaid status subgroups, the prevalence was as high as one-third. State-specific prevalence varied widely and ranged from 13.9 to 25.1%. Black women had an obesity prevalence about 70% higher than white and Hispanic women (black: 29.1%; white: 17.4%; Hispanic: 17.4%); however, these race-specific rates varied notably by location. Obesity prevalence was 50% higher among women whose delivery was paid for by Medicaid than by other means (e.g., private insurance, cash, HMO).
This prevalence makes maternal obesity and its resulting maternal morbidities (e.g., gestational diabetes mellitus) a common risk factor for a complicated pregnancy.
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ABSTRACT: Quantitation of regional brain function as a means for the characterization of brain disorders is discussed. Such quantitation can be accomplished by three-dimensional volume analysis based on magnetic resonance images, even though simple thresholding cannot be used for the segmentation of such images. As a first step toward such analysis, techniques for identifying and isolating the contents of the skull and, in particular, cerebrospinal fluid are described. The techniques of gradient-based boundary tracking, partitioning in a two-dimensional feature space, and shape-based interpolation appear to be effective for achieving this limited aimBiomedical Engineering., Proceedings of a Special Symposium on Maturing Technologies and Emerging Horizons in; 12/1988
Conference Paper: Recent advancements in the design of the LHCD system for ITER[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The overall configuration of the LHCD system for ITER has been substantially outlined during the EDA phase. A following first detailed study has been performed in the frame of ITER tasks and contracts. In the actual configuration the proposed system has a working frequency of 5 GHz and couples to the plasma an overall RF power of 20 MW through a launcher based on the passive active multijunction (PAM) concept. Specific microwave components couple the output rectangular waveguides of the RF sources to the circular waveguides, excited in the low losses, TE°<sub>01</sub> mode, of the main transmission line (MTL) and to split it again in rectangular waveguides, at the end of this line, to adequately feed the PAM launcher. Selective TE°<sub>01</sub> mode filters are included in the MTL to eliminate unwanted modes that could be accidentally originated in the discontinuities of this line, such as the 90° bends used to follow the optimized path between the RF sources and the launcher. Ceramic windows (BeO) separate the launcher, at the same pressure of the vacuum vessel of ITER, from the MTL. Most of these components have been recently revised and have been object of a more accurate analysis. In same cases alternative components have been ascertained and studied. The paper gives the actual status of the system.Fusion Engineering, 2003. 20th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on; 11/2003
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ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a traffic control scheme to support real-time traffic over the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems that do not have QoS support functionality. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow and load balancing between access points by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed scheme was implemented on a Linux machine which is called traffic controller. The traffic controller connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network and the access points of wireless LAN are attached to the access network. We evaluated the performance of the proposed traffic controller and confirmed that the communication quality of real-time traffic would be greatly improved by using this technique.Wireless Communication Systems, 2004. 1st International Symposium on; 10/2004