Molecular characterization of the DYX1C1 gene and its application as a cancer biomarker.
ABSTRACT DYX1C1 has three alternatively spliced transcripts. Therefore, we expect that alternative transcripts of DYX1C1 are used as a biomarker to detect specific cancer.
RT-PCR analysis is conducted in order to detect expression of the DYX1C1 gene and the PCR products were analyzed using the Image J program to compare the expression levels of each transcript.
We found one of the transcripts was directly associated with an HERV-H LTR element that could be translated into protein sequence. Four new alternative transcripts were identified by RT-PCR analysis with various human tissue samples including 10 normal and adjacent tumor tissue sets. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed the transcriptional activity of V3 and V2 was higher in tumor than in normal tissue samples, especially in the colorectal tissue samples.
Our results indicated that alternatively spliced transcript variants of the DYX1C1 gene could be used as cancer biomarkers to detect colorectal cancer.
Article: The rs3743205 SNP is important for the regulation of the dyslexia candidate gene DYX1C1 by estrogen receptor β and DNA methylation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Estrogen is involved in numerous physiological processes such as growth, differentiation, and function of the male and female reproductive tissues. In the developing brain, estrogen signaling has been linked to cognitive functions, such as learning and memory; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. We have previously shown a link between developmental dyslexia and estrogen signaling, when we studied the functional interactions between the dyslexia candidate protein DYX1C1 and the estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ). Here, we investigate the 17β-estradiol (E2)-dependent regulation of dyslexia susceptibility 1 candidate 1 (DYX1C1) expression. We demonstrate that ERβ, not ERα, binds to a transcriptionally active cis-regulatory region upstream of DYX1C1 transcriptional start site and that DYX1C1 expression is enhanced by E2 in a neuroblastoma cell line. This regulation is dependent on transcription factor II-I and liganded ERβ recruitment to this region. In addition, we describe that a single nucleotide polymorphism previously shown to be associated with dyslexia and located in the cis-regulatory region of DYX1C1 may alter the epigenetic and endocrine regulation of this gene. Our data provide important molecular insights into the relationship between developmental dyslexia susceptibility and estrogen signaling.Molecular Endocrinology 03/2012; 26(4):619-29. · 4.54 Impact Factor
Article: The dyslexia candidate gene DYX1C1 is a potential marker of poor survival in breast cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dyslexia candidate gene, DYX1C1, shown to regulate and interact with estrogen receptors and involved in the regulation of neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker. This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic value and therapy-predictive potential of DYX1C1 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer. DYX1C1 mRNA expression was assessed at the mRNA level in three independent population-derived patient cohorts. An association to estrogen/progesterone receptor status, Elston grade, gene expression subtype and lymph node status was analyzed within these cohorts. DYX1C1 protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in cancer and normal breast tissue. The statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test, ANOVA, Fisher's exact test and a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model. DYX1C1 mRNA is significantly more highly expressed in tumors that have been classified as estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor-positive. The expression of DYX1C1 among the molecular subtypes shows the lowest median expression within the basal type tumors, which are considered to have the worst prognosis. The expression of DYX1C1 is significantly lower in tumors graded as Elston grade 3 compared with grades 1 and 2. DYX1C1 protein is expressed in 88% of tumors and in all 10 normal breast tissues examined. Positive protein expression was significantly correlated to overall survival (Hazard ratio 3.44 [CI 1.84-6.42]) of the patients but not to any of the variables linked with mRNA expression. We show that the expression of DYX1C1 in breast cancer is associated with several clinicopathological parameters and that loss of DYX1C1 correlates with a more aggressive disease, in turn indicating that DYX1C1 is a potential prognostic biomarker in breast cancer.BMC Cancer 02/2012; 12:79. · 3.01 Impact Factor