Regulation of human COL9A1 gene expression - Activation of the proximal promoter region by SOX9
ABSTRACT The COL9A1 gene contains two promoter regions, one driving expression of a long alpha1(IX) chain in cartilage (upstream) and one driving expression of a shorter chain in the cornea and vitreous (downstream). To determine how the chondrocyte-specific expression of the COL9A1 gene is regulated, we have begun to characterize the upstream chondrocyte-specific promoter region of the human COL9A1 gene. Transient-transfection analyses performed in rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells, human chondrosarcoma (HTB) cells, and NIH/3T3 cells showed that the COL9A1 promoter was active in RCS cells but not HTB or NIH/3T3 cells. Inclusion of the first intron had no effect on promoter activity. In transient-transfection analyses with promoter deletion constructs, it was found that full promoter activity in RCS cells depended on the region from -560 bp to +130 bp relative to the transcriptional start site (+1). Sequence analysis of the region from -890 bp to the transcriptional start predicted five putative SOX/Sry-binding sites. Mutation analysis revealed that two of three putative SOX/Sry binding sites within the -560 to +130 bp region are responsible for most of the COL9A1 promoter activity in RCS cells. Co-transfection experiments with a SOX9 expression plasmid revealed that a construct containing the five putative SOX/Sry-binding sites was transactivated 20- to 30-fold in both HTB and NIH/3T3 cells. Further co-transfection experiments showed that two of the SOX/Sry-binding sites located within the -560 to +130 bp region were required for full transactivation. However, mutation and deletion analyses indicated that a region from -560 to -357 bp, which does not contain any other conspicuous SOX9 sites, is also important for full promoter activity. DNA-protein binding assays and super-shift analysis revealed that SOX9 can form a specific complex with one of the SOX/Sry-binding sites with in the -560 to +130 region.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of high mobility group box protein (HMGB)-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 on equine articular chondrocytes were investigated, with emphasis on detecting differences between anatomical sites exposed to different loading in vivo, using three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures established with chondrocytes from dorsal radial facet (DRF, highly loaded) and palmar condyle (PC, less loaded) of the third carpal bone (C3). Expression of important genes involved in cartilage metabolism, presence of glycosaminoglycans and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in pellets, and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and aggrecan epitope CS 846 were evaluated. Compared to controls, IL-1β treatment increased gene expression of versican, matrix-degrading enzymes, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and decreased aggrecan and collagen type I and type II expression. In addition, IL-1β-treated pellets showed decreased safranin O staining and increased COMP immunostaining and MMP-13 concentrations in culture supernatants. Effects of IL-6 and HMGB-1 on gene expression were variable, although upregulation of Sry-related high-mobility group box 9 (Sox9) was often present and statistically increased in HMGB-1-treated pellets. Response to cytokines rarely differed between DRF and PC pellets. Thus, site-associated cartilage deterioration in equine carpal osteoarthritis (OA) is not explained by topographically different responses to inflammatory mediators. Differences in gene expressions of structural matrix proteins in untreated DRF and PC pellets were noted in the youngest horses, which may indicate differences in the chondrocytes potential to produce matrix in vivo. Overall, a strong catabolic response was induced by IL-1β, whereas slight anabolic effects were induced by IL-6 and HMGB-1.Connective tissue research 11/2010; 52(4):290-300. DOI:10.3109/03008207.2010.523803 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sox9 encodes an HMG-domain transcription factor that is critically required in numerous developmental processes such as chondrogenesis and otic placode formation. Here, we show that Sox9 is expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the developing cochlea in the mouse suggesting that Sox9 may also control development of the otic fibrocyte compartment and the surrounding otic capsule. Tissue-specific inactivation of Sox9 in the periotic mesenchyme using a Tbx18(Cre) mouse line results in arrest of early chondrogenesis and consequently, in a lack of cochlear otic capsule formation. Furthermore, loss of Sox9 severely compromises expansion, differentiation and remodeling of the otic fibrocyte compartment. Early cell proliferation defects in the entire periotic mesenchyme of Sox9-deficient inner ears suggest a cell-autonomous function of Sox9 for the development of the inner mesenchymal compartment. Abnormal cochlear duct morphogenesis in Sox9 mutants including disruption of the coiling process is tightly associated with the onset of mesenchymal defects whereas the absence of major differentiation defects in the otic epithelium suggests that Sox9-dependent mesenchymal signals primarily control epithelial morphogenesis.Developmental Biology 03/2010; 342(1):51-62. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.03.014 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During musculoskeletal development, Sry-type HMG box 9 (Sox9) has a crucial role in mesenchymal condensation and chondrogenesis. On the other hand, a tissue-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx) regulates the differentiation of tendon and ligament progenitors. Whereas these two transcription factors cooperatively participate in the determination of cellular lineages, the precise interaction between Sox9 and Scx remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated that the Sox9-dependent transcription is synergistically activated by several Sox9-associating molecules, such as p300 and Smad3, on chromatin. In this study, we investigated the function of Scx in the Sox9-dependent transcription. The expression of alpha1(II) collagen (Col2a1) gene was stimulated by an appropriate transduction of Sox9 and Scx. Scx and its partner E47, which dimerizes with other bHLH proteins, cooperatively enhanced the Sox9-dependent transcription in luciferase reporter assays. Coactivator p300 synergistically increased the activity of Sox9-regulated reporter gene, which contains promoter and enhancer regions of Col2a1, in the presence of Scx and E47. Immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that Scx and E47 formed a transcriptional complex with Sox9 and p300. Scx/E47 heterodimer also associated with a conserved E-box sequence (CAGGTG) in the Col2a1 promoter on chromatin. These findings suggest that Scx and E47 might modulate the primary chondrogenesis by associating with the Sox9-related transcriptional complex, and by binding to the conserved E-box on Col2a1 promoter.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 10/2009; 42(1):148-56. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.10.003 · 4.24 Impact Factor