The COL9A1 gene contains two promoter regions, one driving expression of a long alpha1(IX) chain in cartilage (upstream) and one driving expression of a shorter chain in the cornea and vitreous (downstream). To determine how the chondrocyte-specific expression of the COL9A1 gene is regulated, we have begun to characterize the upstream chondrocyte-specific promoter region of the human COL9A1 gene. Transient-transfection analyses performed in rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells, human chondrosarcoma (HTB) cells, and NIH/3T3 cells showed that the COL9A1 promoter was active in RCS cells but not HTB or NIH/3T3 cells. Inclusion of the first intron had no effect on promoter activity. In transient-transfection analyses with promoter deletion constructs, it was found that full promoter activity in RCS cells depended on the region from -560 bp to +130 bp relative to the transcriptional start site (+1). Sequence analysis of the region from -890 bp to the transcriptional start predicted five putative SOX/Sry-binding sites. Mutation analysis revealed that two of three putative SOX/Sry binding sites within the -560 to +130 bp region are responsible for most of the COL9A1 promoter activity in RCS cells. Co-transfection experiments with a SOX9 expression plasmid revealed that a construct containing the five putative SOX/Sry-binding sites was transactivated 20- to 30-fold in both HTB and NIH/3T3 cells. Further co-transfection experiments showed that two of the SOX/Sry-binding sites located within the -560 to +130 bp region were required for full transactivation. However, mutation and deletion analyses indicated that a region from -560 to -357 bp, which does not contain any other conspicuous SOX9 sites, is also important for full promoter activity. DNA-protein binding assays and super-shift analysis revealed that SOX9 can form a specific complex with one of the SOX/Sry-binding sites with in the -560 to +130 region.
"The human COL9A1 promoter (sparse CpG promoter) contains 8 CpG sites in the 1,000-bp sequence upstream of exon 1 (GenBank accession No. AF036110), relative to the transcriptional start site (+1)  (Figure 2C). In general, methylation levels in all CpG sites in the COL9A1 promoter region were inversely correlated with foot length and developmental age; i.e. the oldest fetal sample analysed displayed the lowest percentage of CpG site methylation (Figure 2D). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetic modifications are heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. DNA methylation has been implicated in the control of several cellular processes including differentiation, gene regulation, development, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Methylated cytosine residues at CpG dinucleotides are commonly associated with gene repression; conversely, strategic loss of methylation during development could lead to activation of lineage-specific genes. Evidence is emerging that bone development and growth are programmed; although, interestingly, bone is constantly remodelled throughout life. Using human embryonic stem cells, human fetal bone cells (HFBCs), adult chondrocytes and STRO-1(+) marrow stromal cells from human bone marrow, we have examined a spectrum of developmental stages of femur development and the role of DNA methylation therein. Using pyrosequencing methodology we analysed the status of methylation of genes implicated in bone biology; furthermore, we correlated these methylation levels with gene expression levels using qRT-PCR and protein distribution during fetal development evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We found that during fetal femur development DNA methylation inversely correlates with expression of genes including iNOS (NOS2) and COL9A1, but not catabolic genes including MMP13 and IL1B. Furthermore, significant demethylation was evident in the osteocalcin promoter between the fetal and adult developmental stages. Increased TET1 expression and decreased expression of DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in adult chondrocytes compared to HFBCs could contribute to the loss of methylation observed during fetal development. HFBC multipotency confirms these cells to be an ideal developmental system for investigation of DNA methylation regulation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the role of epigenetic regulation, specifically DNA methylation, in bone development, informing and opening new possibilities in development of strategies for bone repair/tissue engineering.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(1):e54957. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054957 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The effects on collagen type II and aggrecan expression could, at least partly, be the result of a primary antichondrogenic or dedifferentiating effect induced by IL-1β, as Sox9 expression was decreased and versican expression increased in most IL-1β-treated pellets. Sox9 acts as a transcriptional activator for several genes involved in the formation of extracellular cartilage matrix      and is needed for chondrocyte differentiation . Suppression of Sox9 by IL-1β has previously been reported in murine chondrocytes . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of high mobility group box protein (HMGB)-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 on equine articular chondrocytes were investigated, with emphasis on detecting differences between anatomical sites exposed to different loading in vivo, using three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures established with chondrocytes from dorsal radial facet (DRF, highly loaded) and palmar condyle (PC, less loaded) of the third carpal bone (C3). Expression of important genes involved in cartilage metabolism, presence of glycosaminoglycans and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in pellets, and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and aggrecan epitope CS 846 were evaluated. Compared to controls, IL-1β treatment increased gene expression of versican, matrix-degrading enzymes, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and decreased aggrecan and collagen type I and type II expression. In addition, IL-1β-treated pellets showed decreased safranin O staining and increased COMP immunostaining and MMP-13 concentrations in culture supernatants. Effects of IL-6 and HMGB-1 on gene expression were variable, although upregulation of Sry-related high-mobility group box 9 (Sox9) was often present and statistically increased in HMGB-1-treated pellets. Response to cytokines rarely differed between DRF and PC pellets. Thus, site-associated cartilage deterioration in equine carpal osteoarthritis (OA) is not explained by topographically different responses to inflammatory mediators. Differences in gene expressions of structural matrix proteins in untreated DRF and PC pellets were noted in the youngest horses, which may indicate differences in the chondrocytes potential to produce matrix in vivo. Overall, a strong catabolic response was induced by IL-1β, whereas slight anabolic effects were induced by IL-6 and HMGB-1.
Connective tissue research 11/2010; 52(4):290-300. DOI:10.3109/03008207.2010.523803 · 1.61 Impact Factor
"A common feature in chondrocyte-specific enhancers of cartilage genes such as those of collagen types II, IX and XI, CD-Rap, aggrecan and matrilin1 is the presence of pairs of SOX9 binding sequences. These enhancers are activated by SOX9 in transfection experiments, and mutations in these enhancers that prevent SOX9 binding abolish their chondrocyte-specific activity in DNA transfections and in transgenic mice (12–21). A 7-bp consensus DNA element (A/T)(A/T)CAA (A/T)G has been identified as a recognition element for SOX proteins, which interact with the minor groove of DNA. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in SOX9, a gene essential for chondrocyte differentiation cause the human disease campomelic dysplasia (CD). To understand how SOX9 activates transcription, we characterized the DNA binding and cell-free transcription ability of wild-type SOX9 and a dimerization domain SOX9 mutant. Whereas formation of monomeric mutant SOX9-DNA complex increased linearly with increasing SOX9 concentrations, formation of a wild-type SOX9-DNA dimeric complex increased more slowly suggesting a more sigmoidal-type progression. Stability of SOX9-DNA complexes, however, was unaffected by the dimerization mutation. Both wild-type and mutant SOX9 activated transcription of a naked Col2a1 DNA template. However, after nucleosomal assembly, only wild-type and not the mutant was able to remodel chromatin and activate transcription of this template. Using a cell line, in which the Col2a1 vector was stably integrated, no differences were seen in the interactions of wild-type and mutant SOX9 with the chromatin of the Col2a1 vector using ChIP. However, the mutant was unable to activate transcription in agreement with in vitro results. We hypothesize that the SOX9 dimerization domain is necessary to remodel the Col2a1 chromatin in order to allow transcription to take place. These results further clarify the mechanism that accounts for CD in patients harboring SOX9 dimerization domain mutations.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2010; 38(18):6018-28. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkq417 · 9.11 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.