Regulation of human COL9A1 gene expression. Activation of the proximal promoter region by SOX9.
ABSTRACT The COL9A1 gene contains two promoter regions, one driving expression of a long alpha1(IX) chain in cartilage (upstream) and one driving expression of a shorter chain in the cornea and vitreous (downstream). To determine how the chondrocyte-specific expression of the COL9A1 gene is regulated, we have begun to characterize the upstream chondrocyte-specific promoter region of the human COL9A1 gene. Transient-transfection analyses performed in rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells, human chondrosarcoma (HTB) cells, and NIH/3T3 cells showed that the COL9A1 promoter was active in RCS cells but not HTB or NIH/3T3 cells. Inclusion of the first intron had no effect on promoter activity. In transient-transfection analyses with promoter deletion constructs, it was found that full promoter activity in RCS cells depended on the region from -560 bp to +130 bp relative to the transcriptional start site (+1). Sequence analysis of the region from -890 bp to the transcriptional start predicted five putative SOX/Sry-binding sites. Mutation analysis revealed that two of three putative SOX/Sry binding sites within the -560 to +130 bp region are responsible for most of the COL9A1 promoter activity in RCS cells. Co-transfection experiments with a SOX9 expression plasmid revealed that a construct containing the five putative SOX/Sry-binding sites was transactivated 20- to 30-fold in both HTB and NIH/3T3 cells. Further co-transfection experiments showed that two of the SOX/Sry-binding sites located within the -560 to +130 bp region were required for full transactivation. However, mutation and deletion analyses indicated that a region from -560 to -357 bp, which does not contain any other conspicuous SOX9 sites, is also important for full promoter activity. DNA-protein binding assays and super-shift analysis revealed that SOX9 can form a specific complex with one of the SOX/Sry-binding sites with in the -560 to +130 region.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of high mobility group box protein (HMGB)-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 on equine articular chondrocytes were investigated, with emphasis on detecting differences between anatomical sites exposed to different loading in vivo, using three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures established with chondrocytes from dorsal radial facet (DRF, highly loaded) and palmar condyle (PC, less loaded) of the third carpal bone (C3). Expression of important genes involved in cartilage metabolism, presence of glycosaminoglycans and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in pellets, and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and aggrecan epitope CS 846 were evaluated. Compared to controls, IL-1β treatment increased gene expression of versican, matrix-degrading enzymes, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and decreased aggrecan and collagen type I and type II expression. In addition, IL-1β-treated pellets showed decreased safranin O staining and increased COMP immunostaining and MMP-13 concentrations in culture supernatants. Effects of IL-6 and HMGB-1 on gene expression were variable, although upregulation of Sry-related high-mobility group box 9 (Sox9) was often present and statistically increased in HMGB-1-treated pellets. Response to cytokines rarely differed between DRF and PC pellets. Thus, site-associated cartilage deterioration in equine carpal osteoarthritis (OA) is not explained by topographically different responses to inflammatory mediators. Differences in gene expressions of structural matrix proteins in untreated DRF and PC pellets were noted in the youngest horses, which may indicate differences in the chondrocytes potential to produce matrix in vivo. Overall, a strong catabolic response was induced by IL-1β, whereas slight anabolic effects were induced by IL-6 and HMGB-1.Connective tissue research 11/2010; 52(4):290-300. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe a novel role for CD271 in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including deciduous dental pulp stem cells (DDPSCs) and murine multipotent MSCs (C3H10T1/2 cells). The CD271(+) subpopulation of deciduous dental pulp cells (CD271(+)/DDPSCs) and the forced expression of CD271 in C3H10T1/2 (10T271) were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. CD271 expression was detected in DDPSCs that expressed both CD44 and CD90, simultaneously, and the clonogenic capacity of the CD271(+)/DDPSCs was higher than that of the CD271(-)/DDPSCs that expressed both CD44 and CD90. Further, the differentiation of CD271(+)/DDPSCs into osteoblasts and adipocytes was inhibited although CD271(-)/DDPSCs were capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes. CD271 was overexpressed in C3H10T1/2 cells, which have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and myocytes. CD271 inhibited the differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells into any of these lineages. These results indicate a role for CD271 in inhibiting the differentiation of MSCs.Stem cells and development 01/2011; 20(5):901-13. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although Sox9 is essential for chondrogenic differentiation and matrix production, its application in cartilage tissue engineering has been rarely reported. In this study, the chondrogenic effect of Sox9 on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in vitro and its application in articular cartilage repair in vivo were evaluated. Rabbit BMSCs were transduced with adenoviral vector containing Sox9. Toluidine blue, safranin O staining and real-time PCR were performed to check chondrogenic differentiation. The results showed that Sox9 could induce chondrogenesis of BMSCs both in monolayer and on PGA scaffold effectively. The rabbit model with full-thickness cartilage defects was established and then repaired by PGA scaffold and rabbit BMSCs with or without Sox9 transduction. HE, safranin O staining and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the repair of defects by the complex. Better repair, including more newly-formed cartilage tissue and hyaline cartilage-specific extracellular matrix and greater expression of several chondrogenesis marker genes were observed in PGA scaffold and BMSCs with Sox9 transduction, compared to that without transduction. Our findings defined the important role of Sox9 in the repair of cartilage defects in vivo and provided evidence that Sox9 had the potential and advantage in the application of tissue engineering.Biomaterials 03/2011; 32(16):3910-20. · 8.31 Impact Factor