Local field potential beta activity in the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease is associated with improvements in bradykinesia after dopamine and deep brain stimulation.
ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is treated pharmacologically with dopamine replacement medication and, more recently, by stimulating basal-ganglia nuclei such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Depth recordings after this procedure have revealed excessive activity at frequencies between 8 and 35 Hz (Brown et al., 2001; Kuhn et al., 2004; Priori et al., 2004) that are reduced by dopamine therapy in tandem with improvements in bradykinesia/rigidity, but not tremor (Kuhn et al., 2006). It has also been shown that improvements in motor symptoms after dopamine correlate with single unit activity in the beta range (Weinberger et al., 2006). We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after surgery to implant deep brain stimulating electrodes while they were on and off dopaminergic medication. As well as replicating Kuhn et al., using the same patients we were able to extend Weinberger et al. to show that LFP beta oscillatory activity correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia/rigidity, but not tremor, after dopamine medication. We also found that the power of beta oscillatory activity uniquely predicted improvements in bradykinesia/rigidity, but again not tremor, after stimulation of the STN in a regression analysis. However improvements after STN stimulation related inversely to beta power, possibly reflecting the accuracy of the electrode placement and/or the limits of STN stimulation in patients with the greatest levels of beta oscillatory activity.
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ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation effectively alleviates motor symptoms of medically refractory Parkinson's disease, and also relieves many other treatment-resistant movement and affective disorders. Despite its relative success as a treatment option, the basis of its efficacy remains elusive. In Parkinson's disease, increased functional connectivity and oscillatory activity occur within the basal ganglia as a result of dopamine loss. A correlative relationship between pathological oscillatory activity and the motor symptoms of the disease, in particular bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor, has been established. Suppression of the oscillations by either dopamine replacement or DBS also correlates with an improvement in motor symptoms. DBS parameters are currently chosen empirically using a "trial and error" approach, which can be time-consuming and costly. The work presented here amalgamates concepts from theories of neural network modeling with nonlinear control engineering to describe and analyze a model of synchronous neural activity and applied stimulation. A theoretical expression for the optimum stimulation parameters necessary to suppress oscillations is derived. The effect of changing stimulation parameters (amplitude and pulse duration) on induced oscillations is studied in the model. Increasing either stimulation pulse duration or amplitude enhanced the level of suppression. The predicted parameters were found to agree well with clinical measurements reported in the literature for individual patients. It is anticipated that the simplified model described may facilitate the development of protocols to aid optimum stimulation parameter choice on a patient by patient basis.IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 03/2014; 61(3):957-65. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is usually performed to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with electrodes permanently implanted in basal ganglia while the stimulator delivers electrical impulses continuously and independently of any feedback (open-loop stimulation). Conversely, in closed-loop stimulation, electrical stimulation is delivered as a function of neuronal activities recorded and analyzed online. There is an emerging development of closed-loop DBS in the treatment of PD and a growing discussion about proposing cortical stimulation rather than DBS for this purpose. Why does it make sense to “close the loop” to treat parkinsonian symptoms? Could closed-loop stimulation applied to the cortex become a valuable therapeutic strategy for PD? Can mathematical modeling contribute to the development of this technique? We review the various evidences in favor of the use of closed-loop cortical stimulation for the treatment of advanced PD, as an emerging technique which might offer substantial clinical benefits for PD patients.Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 01/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinsonism is associated with changes in oscillatory activity patterns and increased synchronization of neurons in the basal ganglia and cortex in patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease, but the relationship between these changes and the severity of parkinsonian signs remains unclear. We examined this relationship by studying changes in local field potentials (LFPs) in the internal pallidal segment (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and in encephalographic signals (EEG) from the primary motor cortex (M1) in Rhesus monkeys which were rendered progressively parkinsonian by repeated systemic injections of small doses of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Observations during wakefulness and sleep (defined by EEG and video records) were analyzed separately. The severity of parkinsonism correlated with increases in spectral power at frequencies below 15.5Hz in M1 and GPi and reductions in spectral power at frequencies above 15.6Hz with little change in STN. The severity of parkinsonism also correlated with increases in the coherence between M1 EEG and basal ganglia LFPs in the low frequency band. Levodopa treatment reduced low-frequency activity and increased high-frequency activity in all three areas, but did not affect coherence. The state of arousal also affected LFP and EEG signals in all three structures, particularly in the STN. These results suggest that parkinsonism-associated changes in alpha and low-beta band oscillatory activity can be detected early in the parkinsonian state in M1 and GPi. Interestingly, oscillations detectable in STN LFP signals (including oscillations in the beta-band) do not appear to correlate strongly with the severity of mild-to-moderate parkinsonism in these animals. Levodopa-induced changes in oscillatory M1 EEG and basal ganglia LFP patterns do not necessarily represent a normalization of abnormalities caused by dopamine depletion.Neurobiology of Disease 04/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor