Neurotoxic effect of oligomeric and fibrillar species of amyloid-beta peptide 1-42: involvement of endoplasmic reticulum calcium release in oligomer-induced cell death.
ABSTRACT The nature of the toxic form of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) involved in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and whether it is the fibrillar or the oligomeric peptide that is the most deleterious to neurons remain controversial. This work aimed to compare the neurotoxicity of different amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 (Abeta1-42) assemblies, using fresh and aged samples enriched in oligomeric and fibrillar species, respectively, and also isolated oligomers and fibrils. The results obtained with fresh and aged Abeta1-42 preparations suggested that oligomeric species are more toxic to cortical neurons in culture than fibrillar forms, which was confirmed by using isolated oligomers and fibrils. In order to further elucidate the mechanisms involved in soluble Abeta toxicity, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) release in oligomer-induced apoptosis was evaluated. We observed that oligomeric Abeta1-42 depletes ER Ca(2+) levels leading to intracellular Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis involving phospholipase C activation. Moreover, in the presence of dantrolene, an inhibitor of ER Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptors, the oligomer-induced apoptosis was prevented demonstrating the involvement of ER Ca(2+) release.
SourceAvailable from: Jin-Tai Yu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). With the finding that soluble nonfibrillar Aβ levels actually correlate strongly with the severity of the disease, the initial focus on amyloid plaques shifted to the contemporary concept that AD memory failure is caused by soluble Aβ oligomers. The soluble Aβ are known to be more neurotoxicthan fibrillar Aβ species. In this paper, we summarize the essential role of soluble Aβ oligomers in AD and discuss therapeutic strategies that target soluble Aβ oligomers.Molecular Neurobiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12035-015-9143-0 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease have in common the presence of protein aggregates in specific brain areas where significant neuronal loss is detected. In these pathologies, several evidences support a close correlation between neurodegeneration and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a condition that arises from ER lumen overload with misfolded proteins. Under these conditions, ER stress sensors initiate the unfolded protein response to restore normal ER function. If stress is too prolonged, or adaptive responses fail, apoptotic cell death ensues. Therefore, it was recently suggested that the manipulation of the ER unfolded protein response could be an effective strategy to avoid neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disorders. We will review the mechanisms underlying ER stress-associated neurodegeneration and discuss the possibility of ER as a therapeutic target.CNS & neurological disorders drug targets 04/2015; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. In this study we analyzed whether oxidative stress involving changes in Nrf2 and ER stress may constitute early events in AD pathogenesis by using human peripheral blood cells and an AD transgenic mouse model at different disease stages. Increased oxidative stress and increased phosphorylated Nrf2 (p(Ser40)Nrf2) were observed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, we observed impaired ER Ca(2+) homeostasis and increased ER stress markers in PBMCs from MCI individuals and mild AD patients. Evidence of early oxidative stress defense mechanisms in AD was substantiated by increased p(Ser40)Nrf2 in 3 month-old 3xTg-AD male mice PBMCs, and also with increased nuclear Nrf2 levels in brain cortex. However, SOD1 protein levels were decreased in human MCI PBMCs and in 3xTg-AD mice brain cortex; the latter further correlated with reduced SOD1 mRNA levels. Increased ER stress was also detected in the brain cortex of young female and old male 3xTg-AD mice. We demonstrate oxidative stress and early Nrf2 activation in AD human and mouse models, which fails to regulate some of its targets, leading to repressed expression of antioxidant defenses (e.g. SOD-1), and extending to ER stress. Results suggest markers of prodromal AD linked to oxidative stress associated with Nrf2 activation and ER stress that may be followed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2015; 1852(7). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.03.015 · 4.66 Impact Factor