Incidence and treatment of inadequate postovulatory progesterone concentrations in repeat breeder cows.
ABSTRACT The incidence of low day 5 milk progesterone in dairy cows has been investigated and the efficacy of treating the problem assessed. The incidence of inadequate milk progesterone (empirically defined as <3ng/mL) in repeat breeder cows was 34% compared with 11.4% in first insemination cows. Treatment with an intravaginal progesterone device for 7 days starting from day 5 or 6 did not improve pregnancy rate. Treatment with 1500 iu human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on day 5 gave an increase in pregnancy rate that was dependent on initial progesterone concentration and significant (P<0.05) in multiparous but not primiparous cows. While the incidence of inadequate day 5 progesterone was high in repeat breeder cows, it was responsive to hCG treatment, although only in multiparous and not primiparous animals.
- SourceAvailable from: Paulo D Carvalho[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The discovery of progesterone (P4) and elucidation of the mechanisms of P4 action have an important place in the history of endocrinology and reproduction. Circulating P4 concentration is determined by a balance between P4 production, primarily by the corpus luteum (CL), and P4 metabolism, primarily by the liver. The volume of luteal tissue and number and function of large luteal cells are primary factors determining P4 production. Rate of P4 metabolism is generally determined by liver blood flow and can be of critical importance in determining circulating P4 concentrations, particularly in dairy cattle. During timed artificial insemination (AI) protocols, elevations in P4 are achieved by increasing number of CL by creating accessory CL or by supplementation with exogenous P4. Dietary manipulations can also alter circulating P4, although practical methods to apply these techniques have not yet been reported. Elevating P4 before the timed AI generally decreases double ovulation and increases fertility to the timed AI. Near the time of AI, slight elevations in circulating P4, possibly due to inadequate luteal regression, can dramatically reduce fertility. After AI, circulating P4 is critical for embryo growth and establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Many studies have attempted to improve fertility by elevating P4 after timed AI. Our recent meta-analysis and manipulative study indicated small fertility benefits (3% to 3.5%) mostly in primiparous cows. Thus, previous research has provided substantial insight into mechanisms regulating circulating P4 concentrations and actions. Understanding this prior research can focus future research on P4 manipulation to improve reproductive success.animal 04/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
- Reproduction Fertility and Development 10/2012; · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives were to determine whether pregnancy success could be improved in lactating cows with timed embryo transfer when embryos were produced in vitro using a medium designed to enhance embryo development and survival after cryopreservation. In experiment 1, embryos (n=569 to 922) were cultured in either modified synthetic oviduct fluid or a serum-free medium, Block-Bonilla-Hansen-7 (BBH7). Development to the blastocyst stage was recorded at d 7, and selected blastocysts (n=79 to 114) were vitrified using open pulled straws. Culture of embryos in BBH7 increased development to the blastocyst stage (41.9±2.0 vs. 14.7±2.0%) and advanced blastocyst stages (expanded, hatching, hatched; 31.1±1.3 vs. 6.4±1.3%) at d 7 and resulted in higher hatching rates at 24h postwarming compared with embryos cultured in modified synthetic oviduct fluid (59.0±0.5 vs. 26.7±0.5%). In experiment 2, embryos were produced using X-sorted semen and cultured in BBH7. At d 7 after insemination, embryos were transferred fresh or following vitrification. Lactating Holstein cows were either subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the day of presumptive ovulation or used as embryo recipients 7 d later. Embryo recipients received an embryo if a corpus luteum was present. The percentage of cows pregnant at d 32, 46, and 76 of gestation was higher among cows that received fresh embryos compared with TAI cows or cows that received vitrified embryos. At d 76, for example, the proportion and percentage pregnant was 47/150 (31.3%) for cows subjected to TAI, 48/95 (50.5%) for cows receiving fresh embryos, and 39/141 (27.7%) for cows receiving a vitrified embryo. No difference was observed in the percentage of cows pregnant among TAI cows and those that received vitrified embryos. There was a service or transfer number × treatment interaction because differences in pregnancy rate between embryo transfer recipients and cows bred by TAI were greater for cows with more than 3 services or transfers. Pregnancy success in lactating cows can be improved by transferring fresh embryos produced in BBH7 compared with TAI. Moreover, no decline in fertility was observed when cryopreserved embryos were transferred compared with TAI. Embryo transfer is particularly efficacious for infertile cows that have previously experienced several failed breeding attempts.Journal of Dairy Science 11/2010; 93(11):5234-42. · 2.57 Impact Factor