Incidence and treatment of inadequate postovulatory progesterone concentrations in repeat breeder cows.
ABSTRACT The incidence of low day 5 milk progesterone in dairy cows has been investigated and the efficacy of treating the problem assessed. The incidence of inadequate milk progesterone (empirically defined as <3ng/mL) in repeat breeder cows was 34% compared with 11.4% in first insemination cows. Treatment with an intravaginal progesterone device for 7 days starting from day 5 or 6 did not improve pregnancy rate. Treatment with 1500 iu human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on day 5 gave an increase in pregnancy rate that was dependent on initial progesterone concentration and significant (P<0.05) in multiparous but not primiparous cows. While the incidence of inadequate day 5 progesterone was high in repeat breeder cows, it was responsive to hCG treatment, although only in multiparous and not primiparous animals.
SourceAvailable from: Abdelhanine AyadVeterinary World 08/2014; 7(8):610-613. DOI:10.14202/vetworld.2014.610-613
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ABSTRACT: Plasma progesterone concentrations were estimated for 381 nulliparous dairy heifers from eight farms on days 4-6 after insemination. Heifers were synchronised using two treatments of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) 11 days apart. Alternate heifers were treated with 1500 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) at the time of sampling, and the pregnancy status assessed ∼35 days after insemination. Heifers with no corpus luteum (CL; n-30) at the second PGF2α had lower progesterone concentrations (P<0.001) and pregnancy rates (PR; P=0.001) compared with heifers with CL (n=351, defined as cyclic). The risk of no CL increased in heifers <15 months of age (OR=7.5, P<0.001) and with body condition score <2.5 (OR=4.5, P=0.001). Those with no CL were removed from further analysis. The 20 per cent cyclic control heifers with progesterone concentrations ≤2 ng/ml on days 4-6 had lower PRs compared with those with higher concentrations (42 per cent vs 64 per cent, OR=0.3, P=0.01). There was no overall effect of hCG on PR compared with controls (51 per cent vs 60 per cent, P=0.10). However, heifers with high progesterone on days 4-6 (>2 ng/ml) had a lower PR after treatment (51 per cent vs 64 per cent, OR=0.6, P=0.02). Heifers inseminated with sexed (n=18) compared with conventional (n=333) semen had a decreased PR (33 per cent vs 57 per cent, OR=0.2, P=0.01). This study demonstrates that higher plasma progesterone concentrations as early as days 4-6 after insemination have a positive effect on first insemination PR, but there was no beneficial effect of hCG treatment on these days in dairy heifers.10/2013; 173(18). DOI:10.1136/vr.101330
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ABSTRACT: The discovery of progesterone (P4) and elucidation of the mechanisms of P4 action have an important place in the history of endocrinology and reproduction. Circulating P4 concentration is determined by a balance between P4 production, primarily by the corpus luteum (CL), and P4 metabolism, primarily by the liver. The volume of luteal tissue and number and function of large luteal cells are primary factors determining P4 production. Rate of P4 metabolism is generally determined by liver blood flow and can be of critical importance in determining circulating P4 concentrations, particularly in dairy cattle. During timed artificial insemination (AI) protocols, elevations in P4 are achieved by increasing number of CL by creating accessory CL or by supplementation with exogenous P4. Dietary manipulations can also alter circulating P4, although practical methods to apply these techniques have not yet been reported. Elevating P4 before the timed AI generally decreases double ovulation and increases fertility to the timed AI. Near the time of AI, slight elevations in circulating P4, possibly due to inadequate luteal regression, can dramatically reduce fertility. After AI, circulating P4 is critical for embryo growth and establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Many studies have attempted to improve fertility by elevating P4 after timed AI. Our recent meta-analysis and manipulative study indicated small fertility benefits (3% to 3.5%) mostly in primiparous cows. Thus, previous research has provided substantial insight into mechanisms regulating circulating P4 concentrations and actions. Understanding this prior research can focus future research on P4 manipulation to improve reproductive success.animal 04/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1751731114000585 · 1.78 Impact Factor