Incidence and treatment of inadequate postovulatory progesterone concentrations in repeat breeder cows.
ABSTRACT The incidence of low day 5 milk progesterone in dairy cows has been investigated and the efficacy of treating the problem assessed. The incidence of inadequate milk progesterone (empirically defined as <3ng/mL) in repeat breeder cows was 34% compared with 11.4% in first insemination cows. Treatment with an intravaginal progesterone device for 7 days starting from day 5 or 6 did not improve pregnancy rate. Treatment with 1500 iu human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on day 5 gave an increase in pregnancy rate that was dependent on initial progesterone concentration and significant (P<0.05) in multiparous but not primiparous cows. While the incidence of inadequate day 5 progesterone was high in repeat breeder cows, it was responsive to hCG treatment, although only in multiparous and not primiparous animals.
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and the presence of common uterine pathogens in repeat breeder cows. A total of 121 cows with ≥3 consecutive artificial inseminations without conception and no clinical signs of disease were defined as repeat breeder cows and enrolled in this trial. Intrauterine samples were collected with the cytobrush technique to determine the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and bacteriological infections. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in plasma to assess ovarian activity. Furthermore, breed, parity, history of calving and postpartum uterine infection, clinical findings of transrectal palpation, and backfat thickness were analyzed as potential factors for the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows was 12.7%, but common uterine pathogens Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes were found in only one and three cows, respectively. Ovarian activity was determined in 95.0% of all cows. Recorded variables had no effect on the prevalence of subclinical endometritis in repeat breeder cows. In conclusion, subclinical endometritis and uterine infections linked to common pathogens were playing a minor role as cause for repeat breeder cows in this study. Alternative reasons for failure to conceive in these cows are discussed.Theriogenology 01/2015; 83(8). DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.01.013 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objectives were to characterize repeat breeding in dairy cows, including reproductive performance and risk factors. Data from 613 Holstein Friesian cows in nine dairy herds across Japan were enrolled. A repeat breeder was defined as a cow that did not become pregnant after three inseminations, despite no clinically detectable reproductive disorders. In contrast, cows that became pregnant within three inseminations were considered to have normal fertility. Of the 613 cows, 87.3% eventually became pregnant after repeated AI (maximum calving to conception interval was 435 d). Mean (+/-SEM) first AI conception rate, days in milk at first AI, calving to conception interval and service per conception were 38.3%, 82+/-2 d, 125+/-3 d, and 2.0+/-0.1 times, respectively. Normal fertility cows (n=479) required only 114+/-3 d to conceive and 1.7+/-0.1 inseminations per pregnancy, whereas repeat breeders (n=86) required significantly more days to conceive (211+/-10) and more inseminations per pregnancy (4.7+/-0.2). Based on survival analysis, it took 94 d after calving for 50% of normal fertility cows to become pregnant, compared to 155 d for repeat breeders. For repeat breeders, 31.4, 50.0, and 58.1% became pregnant within 210, 300, and 435 d after calving, respectively. The risk factors for repeat breeding were parity (relative risk [RR]=0.809; P=0.058), resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles (RR=1.928; P=0.009), and days in milk at first AI (RR=0.991; P=0.039). In conclusion, repeat breeder dairy cows had very poor reproductive performance. Lower parity, abnormal resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles, and shorter days in milk at first AI were risk factors for repeat breeding.Theriogenology 03/2010; 73(9):1220-9. DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.01.016 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate whether there was a subpopulation of repeat breeders (cows or heifers that returned to oestrus after three inseminations) that were less fertile after a fourth artificial insemination (AI) with or without additional embryo transfer, and to estimate the efficacy of AI plus embryo transfer to overcome repeat breeding problems, a two-part investigation was carried out. Part 1 involved 85 repeat breeders and 85 controls subjected to AI alone. In part 2, 128 repeat breeders received AI on day 0 plus an embryo transfer seven days later, while controls received embryo transfer alone on day 7. In repeat breeders, the interval between calving and pregnancy was 80 days longer than in the controls (P=0.01), irrespective of previous fertility treatment which had mainly focused on the ovaries. The incidence of dystocia was similar in repeat breeders and in controls, but repeat breeders had a higher previous incidence of moderate uterine infection compared with controls (P=0.04). In repeat breeder cows, pregnancy rates for AI alone were 30 per cent after the fourth AI (controls: 45 to 64 per cent after one to three inseminations) compared with 52.6 per cent after a fourth AI with embryo transfer (controls with embryo transfer alone: 49 per cent). Successful pregnancies after a fourth AI plus embryo transfer produced a 6.25 per cent incidence of twins.07/2010; 167(2):44-51. DOI:10.1136/vr.c3544