Outcomes of maternal weight gain.

ABSTRACT The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed evidence on outcomes of gestational weight gain and their confounders and effect modifiers, outcomes of weight gain within or outside the 1990 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines, risks and benefits of weight gain recommendations, and anthropometric measures of weight gain.
We searched MEDLINE Cochrane Collaboration resources, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, and Embase.
We included studies published in English from 1990 through October 2007. We excluded studies with low sample size (based on study design: case series <100 subjects and cohorts <40 subjects).
Overall, strong evidence supported an association between gestational weight gains and the following outcomes: preterm birth, total birthweight, low birthweight (<2,500 g), macrosomia, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants; moderate evidence supported an association for cesarean delivery and intermediate-term weight retention (3 months to 3 years postpartum). The studies reviewed provided strong evidence for the independent association of pregravid weight status and outcomes, moderate evidence for age and parity, and weak evidence for race. Regarding outcomes of weight gain within or outside 1990 IOM guidelines, moderate to strong evidence suggests an association between weight gain below IOM recommendations and preterm birth, low birthweight, SGA birthweights, and failure to initiate breastfeeding, and strong evidence for the association between weight gain above IOM recommendations and high birthweight, macrosomia, and LGA birthweights. Moderate evidence supports an association between weight gain above IOM guidelines and cesarean delivery and postpartum weight retention in the short, intermediate, and long term. Included research is inadequate for objective assessments of the range of harms and benefits of providing all women, irrespective of age, race or ethnicity, or pregravid body mass index (BMI), with the same recommendation for weight gain in pregnancy.
Gestational weight gain is associated with some infant and maternal outcomes. One weight gain recommendation for all women is not supported by the evidence identified in this review. To understand fully the impact of gestational weight gain on short- and long-term outcomes for women and their offspring will require that researchers use consistent definitions of weight gain during pregnancy, better address confounders in their analyses, improve study designs and statistical models, and conduct studies with longer followup.

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    ABSTRACT: Studies report increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) among underweight and normal weight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG). However, most studies examined GWG over gestational periods that differ by term and preterm which may have biased associations because GWG rate changes over the course of pregnancy. Furthermore, few studies have specifically examined the amount and pattern of GWG early in pregnancy as a predictor of PTB. Within one integrated health care delivery system, we examined 12,526 singleton pregnancies between 2000 and 2008 among women with a body mass index <25 kg/m(2), who began prenatal care in the first trimester and delivered a live-birth >28 weeks gestation. Using self-reported pregravid weight and serial measured antenatal weights, we estimated GWG and the area under the GWG curve (AUC; an index of pattern of GWG) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (≤28 weeks). Using logistic regression adjusted for covariates, we examined associations between each GWG measure, categorized into quartiles, and PTB (<37 weeks gestation). We additionally examined associations according to the reason for PTB by developing a novel algorithm using diagnoses and procedure codes. Low GWG in the first and second trimesters was not associated with PTB [aOR 1.11, (95 % CI 0.90, 1.38) with GWG <8.2 kg by 28 weeks compared to pregnancies with GWG >12.9]. Similarly, pattern of GWG was not associated with PTB. Our findings do not support an association between GWG in the first and second trimester and PTB among underweight and normal weight women.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10995-015-1719-9 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Overweight or obesity is detrimental during pregnancy. We studied time trends in the educational gradient of overweight and obesity among pregnant women. Differences in overweight and obesity by area of residence and country of birth were also examined. Methods The study was based on the Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1992 and 2010 and included 1,569,173 singleton pregnancies. Weight and height were registered during the first visit at the antenatal-care clinic. Data on education, country of birth, and area of residence were derived from registers with national coverage. Results In 2008–2010, 32% of Swedish nulliparous pregnant women were overweight or obese. The relative risk of obesity among lower educated women compared to women with higher education increased from 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-1.97) in 1992–1995 to 2.09 (95% confidence interval: 2.05-2.14) in 2008–2010. There was an inverse linear relationship between risks of overweight or obesity, and population density and type of residence municipality. An excessive gestational weight gain according to the American Institute of Medicine was observed among 57-63% of the overweight or obese women, but there were small differences by education. Pregnant women born in Africa, Middle East or Latin America had higher risks of being overweight or obese compared to women born in Sweden. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity as well as the social inequalities in obesity during pregnancy increased in Sweden between 1992 and 2010. Further understanding of social inequalities and geographical differentials in health behaviours of pregnant women is needed when planning public health interventions.
    BMC Public Health 04/2015; 15. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1624-6 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize pregnant women's gestational weight gain (GWG) knowledge and awareness of healthy eating behaviors known to impact GWG. Formative research was conducted including semi-structured individual interviews and focus group interviews. The participants were mostly Caucasian pregnant women (N = 30; Mage = 28 years old) residing in a suburban/rural region of Central Pennsylvania. Descriptive and thematic analyses were used to examine the primary outcomes of GWG and healthy eating knowledge and informational sources. Many women had no knowledge of how much GWG they should gain in pregnancy (42%). Women appeared to have adequate knowledge on foods they should avoid eating during pregnancy. However, one-fourth of women indicated that they did not feel as though they received adequate information from their healthcare provider about the foods they should be eating and how to meet the healthy eating recommendations. Therefore, one-fourth of women reported using non-healthcare provider resources (e.g., magazines, internet) with questionable reliability to obtain healthy eating guidance. These exploratory findings show that pregnant women have some knowledge of the GWG and healthy eating guidelines; however, most women received this information from a non-healthcare provider resource. Focused efforts are needed to educate pregnant women about GWG and healthy eating using accurate and reliable sources andencourage strategies to meet guidelines in an effort to promote healthy GWG.

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Jun 26, 2014