Effect of pentoxifylline in addition to losartan on proteinuria and GFR in CKD: a 12-month randomized trial.
ABSTRACT Pentoxifylline potently inhibits cell proliferation, inflammation, and extracellular matrix accumulation. Human studies have proved its antiproteinuric effect in patients with glomerular diseases. Its benefit in addition to angiotensin receptor blockade in patients with chronic kidney disease is not clear.
Randomized controlled study.
85 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and proteinuria with protein greater than 500 mg/g of creatinine on treatment with losartan, 100 mg/d, for longer than 6 months were screened in National Taiwan University Hospital.
In the first stage (12 months), group 1 served as control and group 2 was administered pentoxifylline. In the second stage (6 months), both groups were administered pentoxifylline. The pentoxifylline dose was 400 mg twice daily for patients with eGFR of 30 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or once daily for patients with eGFR of 10 to 29 mL/min/1.73 m(2).
Proteinuria and eGFR.
Proteinuria was assessed as total protein-creatinine ratio, eGFR was computed by using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation.
27 and 29 patients were randomly assigned to groups 1 and 2, respectively. In the first stage, pentoxifylline decreased median proteinuria from 1,140 to 800 mg/g (median change, -23.9%) compared with 1,410 to 1,810 mg/g (median change, 13.8%) in the control group. The difference between groups was 38.7% (95% confidence interval, 25.7 to 51.6; P < 0.001). The change in proteinuria was related to the change in urinary tumor necrosis factor alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 excretion (R = 0.64 and R = 0.55, respectively; P < 0.001 for both). In the second stage, pentoxifylline reproduced the change in proteinuria in group 1.
Small sample size, disease of late stages, open-labeled study.
Pentoxifylline added to losartan therapy for 1 year decreased proteinuria in patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. A large-scale clinical trial is necessary to confirm this result.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This report describes the distribution of serum creatinine levels by sex, age, and ethnic group in a representative sample of the US population. Serum creatinine level was evaluated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 18,723 participants aged 12 years and older who were examined between 1988 and 1994. Differences in mean serum creatinine levels were compared for subgroups defined by sex, age, and ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American). The mean serum creatinine value was 0.96 mg/dL for women in the United States and 1.16 mg/dL for men. Overall mean creatinine levels were highest in non-Hispanic blacks (women, 1.01 mg/dL; men, 1.25 mg/dL), lower in non-Hispanic whites (women, 0.97 mg/dL; men, 1.16 mg/dL), and lowest in Mexican-Americans (women, 0.86 mg/dL; men, 1.07 mg/dL). Mean serum creatinine levels increased with age among both men and women in all three ethnic groups, with total US mean levels ranging from 0.88 to 1.10 mg/dL in women and 1.00 to 1.29 mg/dL in men. The highest mean creatinine level was seen in non-Hispanic black men aged 60+ years. In the total US population, creatinine levels of 1.5 mg/dL or greater were seen in 9.74% of men and 1.78% of women. Overall, among the US noninstitutionalized population, 10.9 million people are estimated to have creatinine values of 1.5 mg/dL or greater, 3.0 million have values of 1.7 mg/dL or greater, and 0.8 million have serum creatinine levels of 2.0 mg/dL or greater. Mean serum creatinine values are higher in men, non-Hispanic blacks, and older persons and are lower in Mexican-Americans. In the absence of information on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or lean body mass, it is not clear to what extent the variability by sex, ethnicity, and age reflects normal physiological differences rather than the presence of kidney disease. Until this information is known, the use of a single cutpoint to define elevated serum creatinine values may be misleading.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 01/1999; 32(6):992-9. · 5.29 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Crescentic glomerulonephritis is a rapidly progressive form of glomerulonephritis, but treatment remains non-specific. The methylxanthine derivative pentoxifylline (PTX) is a clinically available phosphodiesterase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. This study examined whether PTX has beneficial effects in a rat model of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) crescentic glomerulonephritis. Experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis was induced in Wistar rats by intravenous injection of rabbit anti-rat GBM serum and treated with either vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) or PTX (0.1 g/kg/day) intravenously on a daily basis. Groups of six animals were euthanized at days 3, 7, 14 or 28 after induction of disease. Effects of PTX on renal function, histology and expression of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules were determined. Compared with the vehicle-treated nephritic rats, PTX treatment beginning at the start of the nephritis significantly suppressed mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, but not interleukin-1 beta, throughout the course of nephritis. Moreover, PTX decreased renal mRNAs for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and osteopontin (OPN) at all time points examined. These effects were associated with a significant inhibition of macrophage and T-cell infiltration, a reduction of 24-h urinary protein excretion (50-75%, P<0.05), an improvement of histological damage including glomerular crescent formation (60-70%, P<0.01) and a decrease of cortical mRNAs for type I (alpha 1) collagen and fibronectin. The efficacy of PTX could also be seen, though to a lesser extent, in rats with established nephritis. PTX is an effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agent capable of suppressing rat crescentic glomerulonephritis. Inhibition of renal TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, RANTES, MCP-1 and OPN expression may be a mechanism whereby PTX suppresses progressive renal injury in rat crescentic glomerulonephritis.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2004; 19(5):1106-15. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our current aims were to investigate whether 1) baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) predicted cardiovascular outcomes, 2) changes in UACR differed between treatments, 3) benefits of losartan were related to its influence on UACR, and 4) reduction in albuminuria reduced cardiovascular events. In 1,063 patients with diabetes, hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy, UACR was measured for a mean of 4.7 years. The primary composite end point included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Cox models were run including and excluding baseline and time-varying UACR. Increasing baseline albuminuria related to increased risk for cardiovascular events. Reductions in UACR at years 1 and 2 were approximately 33% for losartan vs. 15% for atenolol (P < 0.001). Benefits of losartan seem to be most prominent in patients with the highest level of baseline UACR, although treatment by albuminuria interaction was only significant for total mortality. Approximately one-fifth of the superiority of losartan was explained by the greater reduction of albuminuria. Risk of the primary end point was related to the in-treatment UACR. Lowering of albuminuria in patients with hypertension and diabetes appears to be beneficial and should be the subject of additional study in future clinical trials.Diabetes Care 04/2006; 29(3):595-600. · 7.74 Impact Factor