c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 are critical mediators of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced NF-kappaB activation.
ABSTRACT The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are a family of anti-apoptotic regulators found in viruses and metazoans. c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 are recruited to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-associated complexes where they can regulate receptor-mediated signaling. Both c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 have been implicated in TNFalpha-stimulated NF-kappaB activation. However, individual c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 gene knock-outs in mice did not reveal changes in TNF signaling pathways, and the phenotype of a combined deficiency of c-IAPs has yet to be reported. Here we investigate the role of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 in TNFalpha-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB. We demonstrate that TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation is severely diminished in the absence of both c-IAP proteins. In addition, combined absence of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 rendered cells sensitive to TNFalpha-induced cell death. Using cells with genetic ablation of c-IAP1 or cells where the c-IAP proteins were eliminated using IAP antagonists, we show that TNFalpha-induced RIP1 ubiquitination is abrogated in the absence of c-IAPs. Furthermore, we reconstitute the ubiquitination process with purified components in vitro and demonstrate that c-IAP1, in collaboration with the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) enzyme UbcH5a, mediates polymerization of Lys-63-linked chains on RIP1. Therefore, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 are required for TNFalpha-stimulated RIP1 ubiquitination and NF-kappaB activation.
- SourceAvailable from: Yann Estornes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As indicated by their name, members of the Inhibitor of APoptosis (IAP) family were first believed to be functionally restricted to apoptosis inhibition. It is now clear that IAPs have a much wider spectrum of action, and recent studies even suggest that some of its members primarily regulate inflammatory responses. Inflammation, the first response of the immune system to infection or tissue injury, is highly regulated by ubiquitylation -a posttranslational modification of proteins with various consequences. In this review, we focus on the recently reported functions of XIAP, cIAP1 and cIAP2 as ubiquitin ligases regulating innate immunity and inflammation.Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 04/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
- Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 04/2014; 21(4):297-300. · 11.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cellular process and faulty regulation of apoptosis is a hallmark of human cancers. Targeting key apoptosis regulators with the goal to restore apoptosis in tumor cells has been pursued as a new cancer therapeutic strategy. XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2, members of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, are critical regulators of cell death and survival and are attractive targets for new cancer therapy. The SMAC/DIABLO protein is an endogenous antagonist of XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2. In the last decade, intense research efforts have resulted in the design and development of several small-molecule SMAC mimetics now in clinical trials for cancer treatment. In this review, we will discuss the roles of XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 in regulation of cell death and survival, and the design and development of small-molecule SMAC mimetics as novel cancer treatments.Pharmacology & therapeutics. 05/2014;