c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 are critical mediators of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced NF-kappaB activation.
ABSTRACT The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are a family of anti-apoptotic regulators found in viruses and metazoans. c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 are recruited to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-associated complexes where they can regulate receptor-mediated signaling. Both c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 have been implicated in TNFalpha-stimulated NF-kappaB activation. However, individual c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 gene knock-outs in mice did not reveal changes in TNF signaling pathways, and the phenotype of a combined deficiency of c-IAPs has yet to be reported. Here we investigate the role of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 in TNFalpha-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB. We demonstrate that TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation is severely diminished in the absence of both c-IAP proteins. In addition, combined absence of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 rendered cells sensitive to TNFalpha-induced cell death. Using cells with genetic ablation of c-IAP1 or cells where the c-IAP proteins were eliminated using IAP antagonists, we show that TNFalpha-induced RIP1 ubiquitination is abrogated in the absence of c-IAPs. Furthermore, we reconstitute the ubiquitination process with purified components in vitro and demonstrate that c-IAP1, in collaboration with the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) enzyme UbcH5a, mediates polymerization of Lys-63-linked chains on RIP1. Therefore, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 are required for TNFalpha-stimulated RIP1 ubiquitination and NF-kappaB activation.
- SourceAvailable from: Jun Li
Dataset: J Immunol-2011-Li-3962-71
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ABSTRACT: Innate immunity represents the first line of defence against invading pathogens. It consists of an initial inflammatory response that recruits white blood cells to the site of infection in an effort to destroy and eliminate the pathogen. Some pathogens replicate within host cells, and cell death by apoptosis is an important effector mechanism to remove the replication niche for such microbes. However, some microbes have evolved evasive strategies to block apoptosis, and in these cases host cells may employ further countermeasures, including an inflammatory form of cell death know as necroptosis. This review aims to highlight the importance of the RIP kinase family in controlling these various defence strategies. RIP1 is initially discussed as a key component of death receptor signalling and in the context of dictating whether a cell triggers a pathway of pro-inflammatory gene expression or cell death by apoptosis. The molecular and functional interplay of RIP1 and RIP3 is described, especially with respect to mediating necroptosis and as key mediators of inflammation. The function of RIP2, with particular emphasis on its role in NOD signalling, is also explored. Special attention is given to emphasizing the physiological and pathophysiological contexts for these various functions of RIP kinases.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.126.Cell Death and Differentiation 08/2014; · 8.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer is a disease in which normal physiological processes are imbalanced, leading to tumour formation, metastasis and eventually death. Recent biological advances have led to the advent of targeted therapies to complement traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, a major problem still facing modern medicine is resistance to therapies, whether targeted or traditional. Therefore, to increase the survival rates of cancer patients, it is critical that we continue to identify molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins act downstream of a broad range of stimuli, such as cytokines and extracellular matrix interactions, to regulate cell survival, proliferation and migration. These processes are dysregulated during tumourigenesis and are critical to the metastatic spread of the disease. IAPs are commonly upregulated in cancer and have therefore become the focus of much research as both biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Here we discuss the roles that IAPs may play in cancer, and the potential benefits and pitfalls that targeting IAPs could have in the clinic.Journal of carcinogenesis & mutagenesis. 05/2013; Suppl 14.