Article

Working memory and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and substance use disorders.

Fernand-Seguin Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada.
Cognitive Neuropsychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.18). 08/2008; 13(4):357-66. DOI: 10.1080/13546800802264330
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Substance abuse is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and it has been associated with negative consequences on the course of the pathology. Regarding cognition, the prevailing literature has produced mixed results. Some groups have reported greater cognitive impairments in dual diagnosis schizophrenia, while other groups have described the reverse.
The current cross-sectional study sought to investigate the potential differences in psychiatric symptoms and cognition between schizophrenia patients with and without substance use disorders.
Fifty-three schizophrenia patients were divided into two groups: with (n=30) and without (n=23) a substance use disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Psychiatric symptoms were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Psychomotor speed and spatial working memory were measured using Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB).
Patients in the dual diagnosis group displayed more severe depressive symptoms and poorer strategy during the working memory task.
These results are in keeping with the prevailing literature describing negative consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia. Substance abuse may exacerbate depressive symptoms and interfere with metacognition in schizophrenia.

0 Followers
 · 
83 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined adults’ long-term autobiographical memory for a dramatic life event—participating as a child victim in a criminal prosecution because of alleged sexual abuse. The study is unique in several ways, including that we had extensive documentation concerning the sexual abuse allegations, the children's involvement in their legal case, and other factors known to affect long-term memory. Approximately 14 years after their legal involvement, 94 adolescents and young adults, aged 16–30 years, were interviewed about their childhood legal experiences. A subset of the victims had taken the stand in criminal court, and memory for testifying was examined. Results revealed that greater severity of the abuse, a closer relationship to the perpetrator, testifying more frequently, and greater distress were associated with more accurate memory. Findings suggest that both individual and sociocontextual factors must be considered in pursuing a scientific understanding of autobiographical memory for stressful childhood experiences.
    Cognitive Development 10/2010; 25(4):394-409. DOI:10.1016/j.cogdev.2010.08.005 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that a deficit in inhibitory conditioned pain modulation (ICPM) underlies the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia (FM), but there is high variability in ICPM efficacy in this syndrome that remains poorly understood. Based on emerging data showing that age, anxiety, depression and sleep can modulate ICPM efficacy, the main objective of this study was to determine the clinical correlates of experimentally-induced pain perception in FM. Fifty FM patients and 39 healthy controls (HC) were tested. Anxiety, depression, sleep and FM symptoms were measured with questionnaires or interview-type scales. Experimental pain testing consisted of two tonic heat pain stimulations separated by a 2-minute cold pressor test (CPT). Thermal pain thresholds and tolerance were higher in HC compared to FM patients. Pain ratings during the CPT were lower in HC relative to FM patients. ICPM efficacy was stronger in HC compared to FM patients. Finally, sleep quality was the only factor significantly related to ICPM efficacy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report this association in FM. Future studies will need to replicate this finding, to determine whether impaired sleep is primary or secondary to deficient pain inhibition, and to characterize the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association.
    The Open Rheumatology Journal 10/2012; 6:296-302. DOI:10.2174/1874312901206010296
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While research on the management of co-occurring addictive and mental disorders (AMDs) has grown substantially in recent years, we still have little guidance on specific strategies. Consideration of epidemiological research and ethical principles can supplement existing clinical trials in providing a way forward. High frequencies of co-occurring disorders, equity of access for affected individuals and potential clashes between services in priorities and procedures, suggest that a stepped model of care by a single service may often be required. Typically, problems are multiple rather than dual, with potential for mutual influence, suggesting a need for interventions that are sensitive to and encompass complex co-occurring problems. Motivational problems are endemic, initial gains are often partial and unstable, and relapses potentially have serious consequences, suggesting a need for long-term, assertive follow-up. Principles such as these provide a solid framework for designing both services and interventions. However, there is a continuing need for controlled trials that unpack effective components of interventions, and increase their impact.
    Addictive behaviors 10/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.03.005 · 2.44 Impact Factor