Diet diversity and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer.
ABSTRACT Diet diversity has been recommended to achieve a healthy diet and prevent cancer.
The relation between diet diversity (i.e., variety in food intake computed as the total number of foods consumed at least once per week) and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was investigated using data from a multicentric case-control study carried out between 1991 and 2005 in Italy.
Cases were 805 patients with histologically confirmed incident cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, and controls were 2,081 patients admitted for acute, non-neoplastic diseases, unrelated to tobacco or alcohol consumption.
A significant inverse association was observed with total diet diversity. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), adjusted for education, tobacco and alcohol, was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.61-0.98) for subjects in the highest tertile of diversity. Inverse relations were found also for diversity within vegetables (OR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.49-0.78) and fruits (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.53-0.86).
This study suggests that a more diversified, and particularly a diet varied in vegetables and fruit, is a favourable indicator of oral and pharyngeal cancer risk, independently from the major recognised risk factors, i.e. alcohol and tobacco consumption.
Conference Paper: Two-axis MEMS scanning mirror driven by a single PZT actuator[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, a novel design for two-axis MEMS scanning mirror driven by a single PZT is presented. For fast scan, the bending moment of the actuator is transferred to torque of the fast torsion bars. An offset is introduced in the present design so that the torsional vibration of the slow scan can be excited by a vertical displacement of the actuator. A vibration analysis reveals that there exists an optimum offset to maximize the slow scanning angle. A simple MEMS process is presented and then a scanning angle test validates the analytical results.2014 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM); 07/2014
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ABSTRACT: Background:Besides tobacco and alcohol, dietary habits may have a relevant role in oral cavity and pharyngeal (OCP) cancer.Methods:We analysed the role of selected food groups and nutrients on OCP cancer in a case-control study carried out between 1997 and 2009 in Italy and Switzerland. This included 768 incident, histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2078 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression models including terms for tobacco, alcohol and other relevant covariates.Results:Significant inverse trends in risk were observed for all vegetables (OR=0.19, for the highest vs the lowest consumption) and all fruits (OR=0.39), whereas significant direct associations were found for milk and dairy products (OR=1.50), eggs (OR=1.71), red meat (OR=1.55), potatoes (OR=1.85) and desserts (OR=1.68), although trends in risk were significant only for potatoes and desserts. With reference to nutrients, significant inverse relations were observed for vegetable protein (OR=0.45, for the highest vs the lowest quintile), vegetable fat (OR=0.54), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR=0.53), α-carotene (OR=0.51), β-carotene (OR=0.28), β-cryptoxanthin (OR=0.37), lutein and zeazanthin (OR=0.34), vitamin E (OR=0.26), vitamin C (OR=0.40) and total folate (OR=0.34), whereas direct ones were observed for animal protein (OR=1.57), animal fat (OR=2.47), saturated fatty acids (OR=2.18), cholesterol (OR=2.29) and retinol (OR=1.88). Combinations of low consumption of fruits and vegetables, and high consumption of meat with high tobacco and alcohol, led to 10- to over 20-fold excess risk of OCP cancer.Conclusion:Our study confirms and further quantifies that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and poor in meat and products of animal origin has a favourable role against OCP cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 22 October 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.667 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 10/2013; 109(11). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.667 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Although diet has been proposed to play an important role in HNC, few associations with diet have been convincing other than alcohol intake. Studies of dietary patterns that examine overall diets may provide broader insight than studies of individual foods. Little is known about the association between dietary patterns and risk of HNC. We prospectively evaluated the association between 2 index-based dietary patterns [ie, the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED)] and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We included 494,967 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health study (1995-2006). HRs (95% CIs) were estimated by using Cox regression. Scores for the HEI-2005 and aMED were calculated on the basis of diet assessed by using a baseline food-frequency questionnaire. Higher scores reflected adherence to dietary recommendations for healthy eating. Our main outcome was the incidence of HNC, including cancer of the larynx, oral cavity, and orohypopharynx. A total of 1868 HNC cases were identified during follow-up. Higher HEI-2005 scores were associated with reduced risk of HNC in men [HR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.89) for highest compared with lowest quintiles; P-trend = 0.0008] and women [HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.70; P-trend < 0.0001]. High aMED scores were also associated with lower HNC risk in men (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.01; P-trend = 0.002) and women (HR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.74; P-trend < 0.0001). Associations were similar among subsites. We did not find significant interactions between smoking and alcohol intake and each index on HNC risk. HEI-2005 and aMED scores were associated inversely with risk of HNC. Large interventional studies are required to assess the causality before conveying definite public health messages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2014; 99(3). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.073163 · 6.92 Impact Factor