Psychomotor performance measured in a virtual environment correlates with technical skills in the operating room.
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to validate the role of virtual reality computer simulation as an objective method for assessing laparoscopic technical skills. The authors aimed to investigate whether performance in the operating room, assessed using a modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS), correlated with the performance parameters registered by a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer (LapSim).
The study enrolled 10 surgical residents (3 females) with a median of 5.5 years (range, 2-6 years) since graduation who had similar limited experience in laparoscopic surgery (median, 5; range, 1-16 laparoscopic cholecystectomies). All the participants performed three repetitions of seven basic skills tasks on the LapSim laparoscopic trainer and one laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the operating room. The operating room procedure was video recorded and blindly assessed by two independent observers using a modified OSATS rating scale. Assessment in the operating room was based on three parameters: time used, error score, and economy of motion score. During the tasks on the LapSim, time, error (tissue damage and millimeters of tissue damage [tasks 2-6], error score [incomplete target areas, badly placed clips, and dropped clips [task 7]), and economy of movement parameters (path length and angular path) were registered. The correlation between time, economy, and error parameters during the simulated tasks and the operating room procedure was statistically assessed using Spearman's test.
Significant correlations were demonstrated between the time used to complete the operating room procedure and time used for task 7 (r (s) = 0.74; p = 0.015). The error score demonstrated during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy correlated well with the tissue damage in three of the seven tasks (p < 0.05), the millimeters of tissue damage during two of the tasks, and the error score in task 7 (r (s) = 0.67; p = 0.034). Furthermore, statistically significant correlations were observed between the economy of motion score from the operative procedure and LapSim's economy parameters (path length and angular path in six of the tasks) (p < 0.05).
The current study demonstrated significant correlations between operative performance in the operating room (assessed using a well-validated rating scale) and psychomotor performance in virtual environment assessed by a computer simulator. This provides strong evidence for the validity of the simulator system as an objective tool for assessing laparoscopic skills. Virtual reality simulation can be used in practice to assess technical skills relevant for minimally invasive surgery.
Article: Role of virtual reality simulation in teaching and assessing technical skills in endovascular intervention.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Training in endovascular intervention ultimately aims to produce interventionalists who demonstrate competence in technical skills. Herein, the authors investigate the rationale for simulation-based training by providing an overview of the psychological theories underpinning acquisition of technical skills, training and assessment history, recent advances in simulation technology, and a critical appraisal of their role in training and assessment in endovascular intervention. Simulators have potential for training and assessment and promise solution to many shortcomings of traditional 'apprenticeship' training models. Before inclusion into the curriculum, further work is needed regarding fidelity, validity, reliability, and design of simulators to ensure accurate transfer of acquired endovascular skills from simulator to patient.Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 01/2010; 21(1):55-66. · 1.81 Impact Factor
Article: European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been demonstrated to improve basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery. The exercise configuration settings used for validation in studies published so far are default settings or are based on the personal choice of the tutors. The purpose of this study was to establish consensus on exercise configurations and on a validated training program for a virtual reality simulator, based on the experience of international experts to set criterion levels to construct a proficiency-based training program. A consensus meeting was held with eight European teams, all extensively experienced in using the VR simulator. Construct validity of the training program was tested by 20 experts and 60 novices. The data were analyzed by using the t test for equality of means. Consensus was achieved on training designs, exercise configuration, and examination. Almost all exercises (7/8) showed construct validity. In total, 50 of 94 parameters (53%) showed significant difference. A European, multicenter, validated, training program was constructed according to the general consensus of a large international team with extended experience in virtual reality simulation. Therefore, a proficiency-based training program can be offered to training centers that use this simulator for training in basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery.Surgical Endoscopy 01/2011; 25(1):166-71. · 4.01 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of the informed consent process on anxiety and comprehension of patients undergoing esophageal and gastrointestinal surgery.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study seeks to evaluate the level of anxiety, recall, and comprehension of the provided information in patients undergoing esophageal and gastrointestinal surgery. Sixty-one patients without cognitive disorders entered a prospective study designed to assess the effect of a surgical informed consent process. The written informed consent was administered to all patients and was supported by a verbal explanation and a schematic drawing of the operation. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory test was used to assess state anxiety and tract anxiety. The test was repeated after the informed consent process. A disease-specific feedback questionnaire was subsequently administered to assess the actual comprehension of the provided information. A significant decrease of the state anxiety scores was documented in most patients (p < 0.001). This effect was more evident in the elderly (p = 0.021) and in those who used Internet as a previous source of information (p = 0.032). The mean correct exact answer rate on the disease-specific questionnaire was 76% (IQ range 66.7-85%). No statistically significant relationship was found between the rate of correct answers and the state anxiety scores. An exhaustive surgical informed consent process was effective in providing comprehension and decreasing anxiety in patients who are candidates to minimally invasive esophageal and gastrointestinal surgical procedures.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 06/2011; 15(6):922-7. · 2.83 Impact Factor