A near-infrared spectroscopic investigation of relative density and crushing strength in four-component compacts.
ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is commonly employed for the analysis of chemical and physical attributes of intact pharmaceutical compacts. Specifically, NIRS has proven useful in the nondestructive measurement of tablet hardness or crushing strength. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transmittance spectra were acquired for 174 13-mm compacts, which were produced according to a four-constituent mixture design (29 points) composed of anhydrous theophylline, lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, and soluble starch. Six compacts were produced for each design point by compacting at multiple pressures. Physical testing and regression analyses were used to model the effect of variation in relative density (and crushing strength) on NIR spectra. Chemometric analyses demonstrated that the overall spectral variance was strongly influenced by anhydrous theophylline as a result of the experimental design and the component's spectroscopic signature. The calibration for crushing strength was more linear than the relative density model, although accuracy was poorer in comparison to the density model due to imprecision of the reference measurements. Based on the consideration of reflectance and transmittance measurements, a revised rationalization for NIR sensitivity to compact hardness is presented.
Article: Hardness and density distributions of pharmaceutical tablets measured by terahertz pulsed imaging[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) as a novel tool to quantify the hardness and surface density distribution of pharmaceutical tablets. Good agreement between the surface refractive index (SRI) measured by TPI and the crushing force measured from diametral compression tests was found using a set of tablets that were compacted at various compression forces. We also found a strong correlation between TPI results and tablet bulk density, and how these relate to tablet hardness. Numerical simulations of tablet surface density distribution by finite element analysis exhibit excellent agreement with the TPI measured SRI maps. These results show that TPI has an advantage over traditional diametral compression and is more suitable for nondestructive hardness and density distribution monitoring and control of pharmaceutical manufacturing processes.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor