Antidiabetes and antihypertension potential of commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners using in vitro models.
ABSTRACT Commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners derived from sugar cane, palm, and corn (syrups) were investigated to determine their potential to inhibit key enzymes relevant to Type 2 diabetes and hypertension based on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using in vitro models. Among sugar cane derivatives, brown sugars showed higher antidiabetes potential than white sugars; nevertheless, no angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition was detected in both sugar classes. Brown sugar from Peru and Mauritius (dark muscovado) had the highest total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, which correlated with a moderate inhibition of yeast alpha-glucosidase without showing a significant effect on porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase activity. In addition, chlorogenic acid quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography was detected in these sugars (128 +/- 6 and 144 +/- 2 microg/g of sample weight, respectively). Date sugar exhibited high alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE inhibitory activities that correlated with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neither phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity was detected in corn syrups, indicating that nonphenolic factors may be involved in their significant ability to inhibit alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE. This study provides a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies and useful information to make better dietary sweetener choices for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension management.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To search for an efficient and inexpensive source of phytoconstituents with antioxidant potential and health promoting traits from bark and empty pods of Acacia auriculiformis (A. auriculiformis). Samples of bark and empty pod extracts were analyzed for bioactives (phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins) and subjected to free radical scavenging activity on DPPH(˙), ABTS(˙+), OH(˙), O(2)(•-) and NO along with the determination of reducing power, iron chelating activity and peroxidation inhibition. Defensive action of extracts on biomolecules and cell membranes were evaluated by DNA nicking assay and haemolysis inhibition assay respectively. α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials were also determined. All the bioactives analyzed were higher in bark (B) than empty pods (EP) [TPC: B (574.51±16.11); EP (96.80±3.45) mg GAE/g. TFC: B (94.71±7.65); EP (247.87±20.45) mg RE/g. Proanthocyanidins: B (2.81±0.31); EP (1.25±0.01) mg LE/100 g DM] except flavonoids. Both the extracts showed higher quenching capacity on DPPH and ABTS (DPPH: B (0.21±0.01); EP (1.51±0.17) g extract/g DPPH. ABTS: B (111 519.14±79 340.91); EP (80 232.55±32 894.12) mmol TE/g) with the FRAP of B (84 515.63±3 350.69) and EP (47 940.79±1 257.60) mmol Fe (II)/g. Iron chelation was not observed. In addition, they showed lower quenching activity on OH(˙) (B (48.95±1.72); EP (34.94±1.62)%) and equivalent quenching on O(2)(•-) (B (53.47±3.92); EP (24.41±2.61)%), NO (B (49.04±5.04); EP (51.00±5.13)%), peroxidation inhibition (B (67.50±5.50); EP (55.1±2.3)%) and antihaemolytic potential (B (87.60±6.84)%) towards authentic antioxidant standards. Interestingly, Empty pod extracts are devoid of antihaemolytic activity. Both the extracts showed dose dependent DNA protection. Besides this, bark and empty pod extracts exhibited dual inhibiting potential against α -amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. On summarization, it insinuated that both bark and empty pods can be used for the preparation of antioxidant/nutraceutical supplements and in anti-diabetic formulations.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 10/2012; 5(10):757-65. · 0.50 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. In recent years, an explosion of interest in the numerous health benefits of dates had led to many in vitro and animal studies as well as the identification and quantification of various classes of phytochemicals. On the basis of available documentation in the literature on the nutritional and phytochemical composition, it is apparent that the date fruits are highly nutritious and may have several potential health benefits. Although dates are sugar-packed, many date varieties are low GI diet and refutes the dogma that dates are similar to candies and regular consumption would develop chronic diseases. More investigations in these areas would validate its beneficial effects, mechanisms of actions, and fully appreciate as a potential medicinal food for humans all around the world. Therefore, in this review we summarize the phytochemical composition, nutritional significance, and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption and discuss its great potential as a medicinal food for a number of diseases inflicting human beings.Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 03/2012; 52(3):249-71. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Date fruit is served as the staple food in the Arab world for centuries. The world production of date fruit increases 2.9 times over 40 years, whereas the world production reached to 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the host. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named by kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical compositions of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fiber, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids etc. Chemical compositions of date fruit change with ripening stages, the cultivar, growing environment and post-harvest conditions etc. Nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical compositions. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, hepato-protective, nephro-protective, anticancer, immune-stimulant activities etc. Many date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products, have been available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharide, antibiotics, date flavored probiotic fermented dairy and bakery yeast etc. In this paper, chemical compositions, nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit and date fruit-based products were reviewed.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 03/2013; · 1.76 Impact Factor