Antidiabetes and Antihypertension Potential of Commonly Consumed Carbohydrate Sweeteners Using In Vitro Models

Laboratório de Química, Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular de Alimentos, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Journal of medicinal food (Impact Factor: 1.63). 07/2008; 11(2):337-48. DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2007.689
Source: PubMed


Commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners derived from sugar cane, palm, and corn (syrups) were investigated to determine their potential to inhibit key enzymes relevant to Type 2 diabetes and hypertension based on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using in vitro models. Among sugar cane derivatives, brown sugars showed higher antidiabetes potential than white sugars; nevertheless, no angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition was detected in both sugar classes. Brown sugar from Peru and Mauritius (dark muscovado) had the highest total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, which correlated with a moderate inhibition of yeast alpha-glucosidase without showing a significant effect on porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase activity. In addition, chlorogenic acid quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography was detected in these sugars (128 +/- 6 and 144 +/- 2 microg/g of sample weight, respectively). Date sugar exhibited high alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE inhibitory activities that correlated with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neither phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity was detected in corn syrups, indicating that nonphenolic factors may be involved in their significant ability to inhibit alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE. This study provides a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies and useful information to make better dietary sweetener choices for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension management.

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    • "The discrepancy is attributed to the lower dose of extract used (Okabe et al. 2009). But in vitro experiments by Galvez et al. (2008) from the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil and the University of Massachusetts in the US found that dark muscovado from Peru and Mauritius showed moderate inhibition of yeast a-glucosidase, without showing a significant effect on porcine pancreatic a-amylase, key enzymes relevant to Type 2 diabetes and hypertension. NCS contains a small amount of policosanols, particularly octacosanol (Asikin et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Non-centrifugal sugar (NCS), the technical name of the product obtained by evaporating the water in sugar cane juice, is known by many different names in the world, the most important being un-refined muscovado, whole cane sugar, panela (Latin America), jaggery (South Asia) and kokuto (Japan). Scientific research has been confirming that NCS has multiple health effects but it is still practically outside the current focus on functional foods and nutriceuticals. 46 academic publications have been identified which reports them. The highest frequency is immunological effects (26%), followed by anti-toxicity and cytoprotective effects (22%), anticariogenic effects (15%) and diabetes and hypertension effects (11%). Some of these effects can be traced to the presence of Fe and Cr, and others are suggested to be caused by antioxidants.
    Sugar Tech 06/2012; 14(2). DOI:10.1007/s12355-012-0145-1 · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    • "These preliminary studies indicate that DF does not adversely affect the glucose tolerance in healthy people and at the same time it is too early to suggest that DF ingestion would benefit or adversely affect the control of diabetes in patients. Ranilla et al. (2008) have demonstrated that date sugars are phenol rich, potent antioxidant, and strong inhibitor of αglycosidase , and α-amylase. Among the several sugars tested, date sugar has been shown to have the highest activity and is directly related to the total phenolics present and inhibitory activity against DPPH radical formation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The methanolic extract of ox-eye bean [Mucuna gigantea (Willd) DC.] contained total free phenolic content of 14.80±1.28 g catechin equivalent/100 g extract dry matter. Encouraging levels of ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP, 1,023 mmol Fe[II]/mg extract), inhibition of β-carotene degradation (59.35%) and radical scavenging activity against DPPH (72.12%) and superoxide (43.11%) were exhibited by the raw samples. Further, it also recorded 82.17% of α-amylase and 91.26% of α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition characteristics. Sprouting+oil-frying caused a apparent increase on the total free phenolic content and also significant improvement on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of methanolic extract, while soaking+cooking as well as open-pan roasting treatments showed diminishing effects. Moreover, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme activities was declined to 22.82 and 45.47%, respectively during sprouting+oilfrying treatment, which are more desirable for the dietary management of type II diabetic patients. Keywordsox-eye bean (Mucuna gigantean)–total free phenolics–antioxidant activity–α-amylase inhibition–α-glucosidase inhibition–indigenous processing method
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