Earlier age at menopause, work, and tobacco smoke exposure.
ABSTRACT Earlier age at menopause onset has been associated with increased all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risks. The risk of earlier age at menopause associated with primary and secondary tobacco smoke exposure was assessed.
This was a cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of US women. A total of 7,596 women (representing an estimated 79 million US women) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were asked time since last menstrual period, occupation, and tobacco use (including home and workplace second-hand smoke [SHS] exposure). Blood cotinine and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were assessed. Logistic regressions for the odds of earlier age at menopause, stratified on race/ethnicity in women 25 to 50 years of age and adjusted for survey design, were controlled for age, body mass index, education, tobacco smoke exposure, and occupation.
Among 5,029 US women older than 25 years with complete data, earlier age at menopause was found among all smokers and among service and manufacturing industry sector workers. Among women age 25 to 50 years, there was an increased risk of earlier age at menopause with both primary smoking and SHS exposure, particularly among black women.
Primary tobacco use and SHS exposure were associated with increased odds of earlier age at menopause in a representative sample of US women. Earlier age at menopause was found for some women worker groups with greater potential occupational SHS exposure. Thus, control of SHS exposure in the workplace may decrease the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with earlier age at menopause in US women workers.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the age at menopause in passive smoking women. Methods: The study was designed as a case-control study. The main outcome measure was to compare the age at menopause of secondhand smokers to non-exposed women. Results: The age at menopause in second-hand smoking (SHS) group was significantly lower than women in non-exposed group (47.0 + 4.7 vs 48.1 + 5.2, P = 0.002). The age at menopause had an inverse correlation with SHS, and positive correlation mother's age at menopause in regression analyses. We further stratified women according to their smoking status. SHS women who had never smoked had significantly lower age at menopause than non-exposed women only when the duration of exposure exceeded 20 years (46.6 + 5.6 vs 48.4 + 3.7, P = 0.008). Furthermore, never-smoked women who exposed to > 10 cigarettes per day had significantly lower mean age at menopause than non-exposed, never-smoked women. These differences were not observed among ever-smoked women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that earlier age at menopause should be added to the negative effects of passive smoking, in addition to increased risks for overall, cardiovascular and cancer mortality as well as increased risk for osteoporosis.Climacteric 07/2014; 18(1):1-14. DOI:10.3109/13697137.2014.938041 · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) adversely affect human health. Our objective was to determine the association of EDC exposure with earlier age of menopause. Cross-sectional survey using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2008 (n = 31,575 females). Eligible participants included: menopausal women >30 years of age; not currently pregnant, breastfeeding, using hormonal contraception; no history of bilateral oophorectomy or hysterectomy. Exposures, defined by serum lipid and urine creatinine-adjusted measures of EDCs, data were analyzed: > 90th percentile of the EDC distribution among all women, log-transformed EDC level, and decile of EDC level. Multi linear regression models considered complex survey design characteristics and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index. EDCs were stratified into long (>1 year), short, and unknown half-lives; principle analyses were performed on those with long half-lives as well as phthalates, known reproductive toxicants. Secondary analysis determined whether the odds of being menopausal increased with EDC exposure among women aged 45-55 years. This analysis examined 111 EDCs and focused on known reproductive toxicants or chemicals with half-lives >1 year. Women with high levels of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, mirex, p,p'-DDE, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners -70, -99, -105, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -183 had mean ages of menopause 1.9 to 3.8 years earlier than women with lower levels of these chemicals. EDC-exposed women were up to 6 times more likely to be menopausal than non-exposed women. This study of a representative sample of US women documents an association between EDCs and earlier age at menopause. We identified 15 EDCs that warrant closer evaluation because of their persistence and potential detrimental effects on ovarian function. Earlier menopause can alter the quantity and quality of a woman's life and has profound implications for fertility, human reproduction, and our global society.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116057. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116057 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Workplace exposures as in clinical work can cause disorders. Some organ systems are at risk. This work may be a risk factor for early symptoms of menopause. The objective of this study was to compare the early symptoms of menopause between hospital personnel who work in clinical and office settings. This was a historical cohort study conducted on clinical and office workers of hospitals. The study was conducted using a flexible interview conducted with a questionnaire among personnel of age 40 years and above. According to their menopausal status, they were divided into three phases: premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause. Symptoms in 10 items were assessed and scored from 1 to 10, and were compared. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16, t-test, and Chi-square tests and were calculated considering P < 0.05 as the significant level. Odds ratios were calculated along with 95% confidence interval. Frequency of menopausal symptoms was higher in the clinical group than in the office group. In the clinical group, the odds ratio for menopausal symptoms like flashing and sweating was 1.879 (1.457-2.423) and in the office personnel, it was 0.192 (0.030-1.238). In the clinical group, the odds ratio for anxiety and irritability was 2.029 (1.660-2.481) and in the office personnel, it was 0.116 (0.017-0.779). Clinical personnel had higher risk for early menopausal symptoms such as flashing, sweating, anxiety, and irritability. Assessing the health of these personnel may help to improve their reproductive health. The person with reproductive risk factors is not suitable for clinical work.Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research 11/2014; 19(6):569-73.