Health Insurance Coverage and Entrepreneurship.
ABSTRACT This article estimates the importance of health insurance coverage on the probability of self-employment. Using data from the 1993 Current Population Survey (CPS), the author focuses on the impact of having health insurance through one's spouse on the likelihood of self-employment. The best estimates suggest that a guaranteed alternative source of health insurance would increase the probability of self-employment between 2.3 and 4.4 percentage points for husbands and 1.2 and 4.6 percentage points for wives. The author's more conservative estimates suggest that universal coverage could increase the percentage of self-employed in the workforce by 2 to 3.5 percentage points. Copyright 2001 by Oxford University Press.
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ABSTRACT: The self‐employed face a tax‐induced disadvantage relative to wage and salary workers when it comes to the payment of health insurance premiums. This paper uses a panel of individual tax return data to test whether lower health insurance premium costs because of an expanded tax incentive result in longer periods of self‐employment. The results suggest that households claiming the deduction are indeed less likely to exit self‐employment. Equalizing the treatment of health insurance premiums for the self‐employed and wage workers by allowing full deductibility from Self‐Employment Contributions Act (SECA) taxes would result in a 7% decrease in the probability of exit.Contemporary Economic Policy 07/2011; 29(3):441-460. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The author provides preliminary and provocative results regarding the impact of health insurance mandates on the propensity of entrepreneurs to start new organizations. In keeping with a well-observed propensity for individuals to adjust their economic calculations in anticipation of future costs/benefits, the evidence suggests that when confronted with such mandates, potential entrepreneurs may either abandon entrepreneurial ambitions or seek to minimize mandate costs through jurisdictional arbitrage with appreciable implications for state and national level approaches to health care, health insurance provision, and workers.Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 09/2010; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A remarkable synergetic effect between the multi-graphene platelets (MGPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in improving the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of epoxy composites is demonstrated. Stacking of individual two-dimensional MGPs is effectively inhibited by introducing one-dimensional MWCNTs. Long and tortuous MWCNTs can bridge adjacent MGPs and inhibit their aggregation, resulting in a high contact area between the MGP/MWCNT structures and the polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscope images of the fracture surfaces of the epoxy matrix showed that MWCNT/MGP hybrid nanofillers exhibited higher solubility and better compatibility than individual MWCNTs and MGPs did. The tensile strength of GD400-MWCNT/MGP/epoxy composites was 35.4% higher than that of the epoxy alone, compared to only a 0.9% increase in tensile strength for MGP/epoxy composites over the epoxy compound. Thermal conductivity increased by 146.9% using GD400-MWCNT/MGP hybrid fillers and 23.9% for MGP fillers, compared to non-derivatised epoxy.Graphical abstractFlexible MWCNTs can construct MGPs to form 3-D hybrid structure which inhibit face to face aggregation of multi-graphene platelets and MWCNTs can act as extended coordinating arms for the 3-D hybrid architectures, these arms entangle with polymer chain to provide stronger interaction between MWCNTs/MGPs and the epoxy matrix. A remarkable synergetic effect between the MGPs and MWCNTs on the enhanced mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of these epoxy composites was demonstrated.Research highlights► Tortuous MWCNTs construct MGPs to form 3-D hybrid structure and inhibit aggregation. ► MWCNTs act as extended coordinating arms for the hybrid architectures in composites. ► 3-D hybrid architectures exhibit a synergetic effect on performance of composites.Carbon. 01/2011; 49(3):793-803.