Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the safety and effectiveness of early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis

Hepatopancreatobiliary and Liver Transplant Surgery, University Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, London, UK.
British Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 4.84). 02/2010; 97(2):141-50. DOI: 10.1002/bjs.6870
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT : In many countries laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis is mainly performed after the acute episode has settled because of the anticipated increased risk of morbidity and higher conversion rate from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy.
: A systematic review was performed with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC; performed within 1 week of onset of symptoms) versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (performed at least 6 weeks after symptoms settled) for acute cholecystitis. Trials were identified from The Cochrane Library trials register, Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded and reference lists. Risk ratio (RR) or mean difference was calculated with 95 per cent confidence intervals (c.i.) based on intention-to-treat analysis.
: Five trials with 451 patients were included. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of bile duct injury (RR 0.64 (95 per cent c.i. 0.15 to 2.65)) or conversion to open cholecystectomy (RR 0.88 (95 per cent c.i. 0.62 to 1.25)). The total hospital stay was shorter by 4 days for ELC (mean difference -4.12 (95 per cent c.i. -5.22 to -3.03) days).
: ELC during acute cholecystitis appears safe and shortens the total hospital stay.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims: Acute acalculous cholecystitis can be treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy in critically ill patients unfit for surgery. However, the evidence on the outcome is sparse. We conducted a retrospective analysis of acute acalculous cholecystitis patients treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy during a 10-year study period. Methods: An observational study of 56 consecutive patients treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute acalculous cholecystitis was conducted in the period from 1 June 2002 to 31 May 2012. All data were obtained by review of medical records. Results: A total of 56 consecutive patients were treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute acalculous cholecystitis. Six patients (10.7%) died within 30 days after the procedure. Percutaneous cholecystostomy could serve as a definitive treatment option in 45 patients (80.4%), whereas 1 patient (1.8%) required cholecystectomy due to recurrence of cholecystitis. Four patients (7.1%) were treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy as a bridging procedure to subsequent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy within a median of 8.8 months (range: 7.7–33.4 months). There was no significant difference in the risk of cholecystitis recurrence between patients with (6/37) and without (2/3) contrast passage to the duodenum on cholangiography (p = 0.096). Conclusion: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is successful as a definitive treatment option in the majority of patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis. It is associated with a low rate of mortality and subsequent cholecystectomy.
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    ABSTRACT: According to the Tokyo Guidelines, recommendation on management of moderate and severe cholecystitis are cholecystostomy in severe cases and either cholecystostomy or emergency cholecystectomy in moderate cases depending on surgical experience. The rationale for this is that percutaneous cholecystostomy is a short procedure while laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be associated with a larger physiological insult. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of cholecystectomy in moderate and severe acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) at our institution. A retrospective review of patients presenting to Westmead Hospital with ACC between 2011 and 2012 was performed. Patients were classified according to the Tokyo Guidelines and only grade II and grade III patients were included. Clinical and complication details were recorded from the clinical notes. Of the 84 patients, 60 had grade II and 24 had grade III ACC. The mean age was 52 years and 59% were female. In both groups, index cholecystectomy was performed in 88% of patients. None of the grade II ACC patients and three (12%) of grade III ACC underwent cholecystostomy. Length of stay (5 versus 12, P < 0.001) and conversion rate (2% versus 27%, P = 0.006) was higher in the grade III group. There were no deaths in patient who underwent surgery in either group. Severe complications were not significantly different (2% versus 9%, P = 0.219). Index cholecystectomy is feasible with low morbidity and no mortality even in severe ACC. Emergency cholecystectomy in the setting of severe cholecystitis appear to be safe and technically feasible option. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
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    ABSTRACT: Cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgical operations performed. Despite level one evidence supporting the role of cholecystectomy in the management of specific gallbladder diseases, practice varies between surgeons and hospitals. It is unknown whether these variations account for the differences in surgical outcomes seen in population-level retrospective data sets. This study aims to investigate surgical outcomes following acute, elective and delayed cholecystectomies in a multicentre, contemporary, prospective, population-based cohort. UK and Irish hospitals performing cholecystectomies will be recruited utilising trainee-led research collaboratives. Two months of consecutive, adult patient data will be included. The primary outcome measure of all-cause 30-day readmission rate will be used in this study. Thirty-day complication rates, bile leak rate, common bile duct injury, conversion to open surgery, duration of surgery and length of stay will be measured as secondary outcomes. Prospective data on over 8000 procedures is anticipated. Individual hospitals will be surveyed to determine local policies and service provision. Variations in outcomes will be investigated using regression modelling to adjust for confounders. Research ethics approval is not required for this study and has been confirmed by the online National Research Ethics Service (NRES) decision tool. This novel study will investigate how hospital-level surgical provision can affect patient outcomes, using a cross-sectional methodology. The results are essential to inform commissioning groups and implement changes within the National Health Service (NHS). Dissemination of the study protocol is primarily through the trainee-led research collaboratives and the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS). Individual centres will have access to their own results and the collective results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant surgical conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
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