Glutathione S-Transferase Omega 1 Activity Is Sufficient to Suppress Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila Model of Parkinson Disease
ABSTRACT A loss-of-function mutation in the gene parkin causes a common neurodegenerative disease that may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) is involved in cell defense mechanisms, but little is known about the role of GSTO in the progression of Parkinson disease. Here, we report that restoration of Drosophila GSTO1 (DmGSTO1), which is down-regulated in parkin mutants, alleviates some of the parkin pathogenic phenotypes and that the loss of DmGSTO1 function enhances parkin mutant phenotypes. We further identified the ATP synthase β subunit as a novel in vivo target of DmGSTO1. We found that glutathionylation of the ATP synthase β subunit is rescued by DmGSTO1 and that the expression of DmGSTO1 partially restores the activity and assembly of the mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase in parkin mutants. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for the protective role of DmGSTO1 in parkin mutants, through the regulation of ATP synthase activity, and provide insight into potential therapies for Parkinson disease neurodegeneration.
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ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a diverse family of phase II detoxification enzymes found in almost all organisms. Besides playing a major role in the detoxification of xenobiotic and toxic compounds, GSTs are also involved in the regulation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction by interaction with proteins in the pathway. An in vitro study was performed for Theta, Omega, Sigma GSTs and their interaction with MAP kinase p38b protein from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The study included the effects of all five Omega class GSTs (DmGSTO1, DmGSTO2a, DmGSTO2b, DmGSTO3, DmGSTO4), all five Theta class GSTs (DmGSTT1, DmGSTT2, DmGSTT3a, DmGSTT3b, DmGSTT4), and one Sigma class glutathione transferase on the activity of Drosophila p38b, including the reciprocal effect of this kinase protein on glutathione transferase activity. It was found that DmGSTT2, DmGSTT3b, DmGSTO1, and DmGSTO3 activated p38b significantly. Substrate specificities of GSTs were also altered after co-incubation with p38b. Although p38b activated DmGSTO1, DmGSTO2a, and DmGSTT2, it inhibited DmGSTT3b and DmGSTO3 activity toward xenobiotic and physiological substrates tested. These results suggest a novel link between Omega and Theta GSTs with the p38b MAP kinase pathway.Journal of Insect Science 05/2014; 14:60. DOI:10.1093/jis/14.1.60 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To elucidate the genetic cause of a rare recessive ataxia presented by 2 siblings from a consanguineous Turkish family with a nonprogressive, congenital ataxia with mental retardation of unknown etiology.Neurology 10/2014; DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001053 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The impact of mutations in four essential genes involved in dopamine (DA) synthesis and transport on longevity, motor behavior, and resistance to oxidative stress was monitored in Drosophila melanogaster. The fly lines used for this study were: (i) a loss of function mutation in Catecholamines up (Catsup(26)), which is a negative regulator of the rate limiting enzyme for DA synthesis, (ii) a mutant for the gene pale (ple(2)) that encodes for the rate limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), (iii) a mutant for the gene Punch (Pu(Z22)) that encodes guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase, required for TH activity, and (iv) a mutant in the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMATΔ(14)), which is required for packaging of DA as vesicles inside DA neurons. Median lifespans of ple(2), Pu(Z22) and VMATΔ(14) mutants were significantly decreased compared to Catsup(26) and wild type controls that did not significantly differ between each other. Catsup(26) flies survived longer when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (80μM) or paraquat (10mM) compared to ple(2), Pu(Z22) or VMATΔ(14) and controls. These flies also exhibited significantly higher negative geotaxis activity compared to ple(2), Pu(Z22), VMATΔ(14) and controls. All mutant flies demonstrated rhythmic circadian locomotor activity in general, albeit Catsup(26) and VMATΔ(14) flies had slightly weaker rhythms. Expression analysis of some key antioxidant genes revealed that glutathione S-transferase Omega-1 (GSTO1) expression was significantly up-regulated in all DA synthesis pathway mutants and especially in Catsup(26) and VMATΔ(14) flies at both mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, we hypothesize that DA could directly influence GSTO1 transcription and thus play a significant role in the regulation of response to oxidative stress. Additionally, perturbations in DA synthesis do not appear to have a significant impact on circadian locomotor activity rhythms per se, but do have an influence on general locomotor activity levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Journal of Insect Physiology 01/2015; 73:11-19. DOI:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.01.001 · 2.50 Impact Factor