Resveratrol in human cancer chemoprevention--choosing the 'right' dose.
ABSTRACT There is now robust preclinical evidence to suggest that resveratrol possesses cancer chemopreventive properties. A series of clinical pilot studies has provided insights into its pharmacokinetics, and data on its human antineoplastic pharmacodynamics start to emerge. It is likely that resveratrol will be developed further in the clinic as a putative cancer chemopreventive agent. The question that remains unresolved is: What is the most suitable dose of resveratrol for effective cancer preventive intervention? Mechanistic studies in cells in vitro have almost invariably used concentrations of resveratrol in the 10(-5) to 10(-4) M range, which is much higher than those which can be achieved in the human biophase after consumption of doses up to 1 g. Many of the preclinical efficacy studies in rodent models of carcinogenesis have employed doses which are dramatically above those which can be ingested with the diet. New experimental paradigms need to be used to obtain information on pharmacological changes elicited by resveratrol when present at very low concentrations or when administered at dietary-relevant doses.
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ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of oral administration of resveratrol, a natural constituent of grapes, on tumorigenesis in Min mice. Min mice are congenic mice genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors as a result of a mutation of the Apc gene. Resveratrol (0.01% in the drinking water containing 0.4% ethanol) was administered for seven weeks to Min mice starting at five weeks of age. The control group was fed the same diet and received water containing 0.4% ethanol. Resveratrol prevented the formation of colon tumors and reduced the formation of small intestinal tumors by 70%. Comparison of the expression of 588 genes in the small intestinal mucosa showed that resveratrol downregulated genes that are directly involved in cell cycle progression or cell proliferation (cyclins D1 and D2, DP-1 transcription factor, and Y-box binding protein). In addition, resveratrol upregulated several genes that are involved in the recruitment and activation of immune cells (cytotoxic T lymphocyte Ag-4, leukemia inhibitory factor receptor, and monocyte chemotactic protein 3) and in the inhibition of the carcinogenic process and tumor expansion (tumor susceptibility protein TSG101, transforming growth factor-beta, inhibin-beta A subunit, and desmocollin 2). Our data highlight the complexity of the events associated with intestinal tumorigenesis and the multiplicity of the molecular targets of resveratrol. The high potency and efficacy of resveratrol support its use as a chemopreventive agent in the management of intestinal carcinogenesis.Nutrition and Cancer 02/2001; 39(1):102-7. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prevention of cancer remains a primary need and new chemopreventive agents must be developed for this purpose. Towards this goal, a chemoprevention study was conducted to evaluate the activity of resveratrol (Res), a phytoalexin, as an inhibitor of colon carcinogenesis. Wistar male rats were divided into six groups, group 1 were control rats, group 2 were control rats that received Res (8 mg/kg body wt p.o. everyday), rats in groups 3-6 were treated weekly with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body wt, s.c. x 15 times). In addition, groups 4, 5 and 6 received Res as in group 2. Modifying effects were assessed using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the extent of histopathological lesions as end point markers. At the end of 30 weeks, Res markedly reduced tumor incidence, the degree of histological lesions and also the size of tumors significantly (P < 0.05) as compared with the rats treated with unsupplemented DMH. The number of ACF consisting of more than six aberrant crypts per rat was observed in group 6 (6.2 +/- 1.4), group 5 (7.7 +/- 1.0) and group 4 (8.2 +/- 1.4) which were significantly lower than that of group 3 (22.3 +/- 2.4) (P < 0.05). The most pronounced inhibition of ACF development was noted in rats fed Res for the entire period and also during the post-initiation period. Also, Res administration lowered the number of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region-associated proteins (AgNORs) per nucleus in non-lesional colonic crypts, which reflects the cell proliferation activity. Oxidative imbalance in DMH-treatment was significantly (P < 0.01) modulated on Res supplementation as indicated by optimal concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH). The results of our study suggest Res to be an effective chemopreventive agent, which suppresses DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis at various stages.Carcinogenesis 06/2006; 27(5):1038-46. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, a sensitive, precise, and selective analytical method has been developed for the identification and quantification of resveratrol metabolites in human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after moderate consumption of red wine, using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray in tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). From different extraction procedures tested, solid-phase extraction was selected to minimize matrix effects reaching the highest sensitivity. Standard calibration curves prepared in human LDL for trans-resveratrol were linear over a range of 0.44-438.59 pmol/mL. The accuracy and interassay precision of this LC-MS/MS assay for resveratrol showed a coefficient of variation of <6.0%. The method allows detection and quantification limits for resveratrol in LDL at 0.15 and 0.44 pmol/mL, respectively. Results to date indicate that resveratrol metabolites were incorporated into LDL after a moderate intake of red wine. The metabolites identified in LDL were trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide, cis-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide, and cis-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside, as well as free trans-resveratrol. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a polyphenol from red wine, specifically resveratrol, has been identified in human LDL after moderate intake of red wine. Furthermore, these findings suggest that these compounds may deliver their antioxidant effect to LDL.Analytical Chemistry 06/2005; 77(10):3149-55. · 5.70 Impact Factor