Identification of Zn-nicotianamine and Fe-2'-Deoxymugineic acid in the phloem sap from rice plants (Oryza sativa L.).
ABSTRACT In higher plants, the supply of metals such as Zn and Fe via phloem is important for the growth and physiology of young organs. However, little information is available on the speciation (chemical forms) of these metals in the phloem fluids. Because the pH of phloem fluids is slightly alkaline and the concentration of phosphate, which may bind to metals, is high, Zn and Fe in phloem fluids could be precipitated if these metals do not form complexes with some ligand compounds. In the present experiment, we examined the chemical forms of Zn and Fe in phloem sap collected from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by separating the phloem sap using size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography, and identifying the contents using electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The low molecular weight chemical forms of Zn and Fe were identified as Zn-nicotianamine and Fe(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complexes, respectively. This report is the first to identify metal-chelate complexes in rice phloem sap.
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ABSTRACT: Iron uptake and translocation in plants are important processes for both plant and human nutrition, whereas relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms of iron transport within the plant body. Several reports have shown that yellow stripe 1 (YS1) and YS1-like (YSL) transporters mediate metal-phytosiderophore uptake and/or metal-nicotianamine translocation. Among the 18 YSL genes in rice (OsYSLs), OsYSL18 is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 679 amino acids containing 13 putative transmembrane domains. An OsYSL18-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion was localized to the plasma membrane when transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. Electrophysiological measurements using Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that OsYSL18 transports iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid, but not iron(II)-nicotianamine, zinc(II)-deoxymugineic acid, or zinc(II)-nicotianamine. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed more OsYSL18 transcripts in flowers than in shoots or roots. OsYSL18 promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) analysis revealed that OsYSL18 was expressed in reproductive organs including the pollen tube. In vegetative organs, OsYSL18 was specifically expressed in lamina joints, the inner cortex of crown roots, and phloem parenchyma and companion cells at the basal part of every leaf sheath. These results suggest that OsYSL18 is an iron-phytosiderophore transporter involved in the translocation of iron in reproductive organs and phloem in joints.Plant Molecular Biology 06/2009; 70(6):681-92. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nicotianamine (NA) occurs in all plants and chelates metal cations, including FeII, but reportedly not FeIII. However, a comparison of the FeII and ZnII affinity constants of NA and various FeIII-chelating aminocarboxylates suggested that NA should chelate FeIII. High-voltage electrophoresis of the FeNA complex formed in the presence of FeIII showed that the complex had a net charge of 0, consistent with the hexadentate chelation of FeIII. Measurement of the affinity constant for FeIII yielded a value of 10(20.6), which is greater than that for the association of NA with FeII (10(12.8)). However, capillary electrophoresis showed that in the presence of FeII and FeIII, NA preferentially chelates FeII, indicating that the FeIINA complex is kinetically stable under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, Fe complexes of NA are relatively poor Fenton reagents, as measured by their ability to mediate H2O2-dependent oxidation of deoxyribose. This suggests that NA will have an important role in scavenging Fe and protecting the cell from oxidative damage. The pH dependence of metal ion chelation by NA and a typical phytosiderophore, 2'-deoxymugineic acid, indicated that although both have the ability to chelate Fe, when both are present, 2'-deoxymugineic acid dominates the chelation process at acidic pH values, whereas NA dominates at alkaline pH values. The consequences for the role of NA in the long-distance transport of metals in the xylem and phloem are discussed.Plant physiology 04/1999; 119(3):1107-14. · 6.56 Impact Factor
- Plant physiology 09/2002; 129(4):1435-8. · 6.56 Impact Factor