Identification of Zn-nicotianamine and Fe-2'-Deoxymugineic acid in the phloem sap from rice plants (Oryza sativa L.).
ABSTRACT In higher plants, the supply of metals such as Zn and Fe via phloem is important for the growth and physiology of young organs. However, little information is available on the speciation (chemical forms) of these metals in the phloem fluids. Because the pH of phloem fluids is slightly alkaline and the concentration of phosphate, which may bind to metals, is high, Zn and Fe in phloem fluids could be precipitated if these metals do not form complexes with some ligand compounds. In the present experiment, we examined the chemical forms of Zn and Fe in phloem sap collected from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by separating the phloem sap using size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography, and identifying the contents using electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The low molecular weight chemical forms of Zn and Fe were identified as Zn-nicotianamine and Fe(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complexes, respectively. This report is the first to identify metal-chelate complexes in rice phloem sap.
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ABSTRACT: Background During wheat senescence, leaf components are degraded in a coordinated manner, releasing amino acids and micronutrients which are subsequently transported to the developing grain. We have previously shown that the simultaneous downregulation of Grain Protein Content (GPC) transcription factors, GPC1 and GPC2, greatly delays senescence and disrupts nutrient remobilization, and therefore provide a valuable entry point to identify genes involved in micronutrient transport to the wheat grain.ResultsWe generated loss-of-function mutations for GPC1 and GPC2 in tetraploid wheat and showed in field trials that gpc1 mutants exhibit significant delays in senescence and reductions in grain Zn and Fe content, but that mutations in GPC2 had no significant effect on these traits. An RNA-seq study of these mutants at different time points showed a larger proportion of senescence-regulated genes among the GPC1 (64%) than among the GPC2 (37%) regulated genes. Combined, the two GPC genes regulate a subset (21.2%) of the senescence-regulated genes, 76.1% of which are upregulated at 12 days after anthesis, before the appearance of any visible signs of senescence. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GPC1 is a key regulator of nutrient remobilization which acts predominantly during the early stages of senescence. Genes upregulated at this stage include transporters from the ZIP and YSL gene families, which facilitate Zn and Fe export from the cytoplasm to the phloem, and genes involved in the biosynthesis of chelators that facilitate the phloem-based transport of these nutrients to the grains.Conclusions This study provides an overview of the transport mechanisms activated in the wheat flag leaf during monocarpic senescence. It also identifies promising targets to improve nutrient remobilization to the wheat grain, which can help mitigate Zn and Fe deficiencies that afflict many regions of the developing world.BMC Plant Biology 12/2014; 14(1):368. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biofortification of staple crops with essential micronutrients relies on the efficient, long distance transport of nutrients to the developing seed. The main route of this transport in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is via the phloem, but due to the reactive nature of some essential micronutrients (specifically Fe and Zn), they need to form ligands with metabolites for transport within the phloem. Current methods available in collecting phloem exudate allows for small volumes (μL or nL) to be collected which limits the breadth of metabolite analysis. We present a technical advance in the measurement of 79 metabolites in as little as 19.5 nL of phloem exudate. This was achieved by using mass spectrometry based, metabolomic techniques.Plant Methods 01/2014; 10:27. · 2.59 Impact Factor