In higher plants, the supply of metals such as Zn and Fe via phloem is important for the growth and physiology of young organs. However, little information is available on the speciation (chemical forms) of these metals in the phloem fluids. Because the pH of phloem fluids is slightly alkaline and the concentration of phosphate, which may bind to metals, is high, Zn and Fe in phloem fluids could be precipitated if these metals do not form complexes with some ligand compounds. In the present experiment, we examined the chemical forms of Zn and Fe in phloem sap collected from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by separating the phloem sap using size-exclusion and anion-exchange chromatography, and identifying the contents using electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The low molecular weight chemical forms of Zn and Fe were identified as Zn-nicotianamine and Fe(III)-2'-deoxymugineic acid complexes, respectively. This report is the first to identify metal-chelate complexes in rice phloem sap.
"DMA has been detected in rice xylem and phloem sap (Mori et al. 1991; Kakei et al. 2009). Moreover, the Fe (III)-DMA complex has been identified as the primary chemical form of Fe in phloem sap (Nishiyama et al. 2012). These findings indicate that DMA is responsible not only for Fe uptake from the rhizosphere, but also for internal Fe translocation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron (Fe) is an essential element for most living organisms. To acquire sparingly soluble Fe from the rhizosphere, rice roots rely on two Fe acquisition pathways. The first of these pathways involves Fe(III) chelators specific to graminaceous plants, the mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, and the second involves absorption of Fe2+. Key components in this response include enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of deoxymugineic acid (OsNAS1, OsNAS2, OsNAAT1, and OsDMAS1), the deoxymugineic acid efflux transporter (TOM1), the Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid transporter (OsYSL15), and Fe2+ transporters (OsIRT1, OsIRT2, and OsNRAMP1). In whole roots, these proteins are expressed in a coordinated manner with strong transcriptional induction in response to Fe deficiency. Radial transport of Fe to xylem and phloem is also mediated by the mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, as well as other chelators and their transporters, including Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter (OsYSL2), phenolics efflux transporters (PEZ1 and PEZ2), and citrate efflux transporter (OsFRDL1). Among these, OsYSL2 is strongly induced under conditions of Fe deficiency. Both transcriptional induction and potential feedback repression mediate the expressional regulation of the genes involved in Fe uptake and translocation in response to Fe deficiency. The transcription factors IDEF1, IDEF2, and OsIRO2 are responsible for transcriptional induction, whereas the ubiquitin ligases OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2, as well as the transcription factors OsIRO3 and OsbHLH133, are thought to mediate negative regulation. Furthermore, IDEF1 and OsHRZs bind Fe and other metals, and are therefore candidate Fe sensors. The interacting functions of these regulators are thought to fine tune the expression of proteins involved in Fe uptake and translocation.
"This was much higher than the NA values reported of 66 μMol L-1 and 76 μMol L-1. In rice it has been found that the main Zn complex ligand was NA whilst for Fe, DMA was the main metabolite responsible for complexing this metal . Glutathione has been found to play a role in Cd transportation as part of the detoxification process . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Biofortification of staple crops with essential micronutrients relies on the efficient, long distance transport of nutrients to the developing seed. The main route of this transport in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is via the phloem, but due to the reactive nature of some essential micronutrients (specifically Fe and Zn), they need to form ligands with metabolites for transport within the phloem. Current methods available in collecting phloem exudate allows for small volumes (μL or nL) to be collected which limits the breadth of metabolite analysis. We present a technical advance in the measurement of 79 metabolites in as little as 19.5 nL of phloem exudate. This was achieved by using mass spectrometry based, metabolomic techniques.
Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 metabolites were detected in wheat phloem. Of these, 53 were identified with respect to their chemistry and 26 were classified as unknowns. Using the ratio of ion area for each metabolite to the total ion area for all metabolites, 39 showed significant changes in metabolite profile with a change in wheat reproductive maturity, from 8–12 to 17–21 days after anthesis. Of these, 21 were shown to increase and 18 decreased as the plant matured. An amine group derivitisation method coupled with liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS) based metabolomics was able to quantify 26 metabolites and semi-quantitative data was available for a further 3 metabolites.
This study demonstrates that it is possible to determine metabolite profiles from extremely small volumes of phloem exudate and that this method can be used to determine variability within the metabolite profile of phloem that has occurred with changes in maturity. This is also believed to be the first report of the presence of the important metal complexing metabolite, nicotianamine in the phloem of wheat.
"AtYSL4 and AtYSL6 have been described as iron transporters localized to organelles, either the chloroplast (Divol et al., 2013) or other endomembrane systems (Conte et al., 2013). The pH of the phloem is slightly alkaline (Dinant et al., 2010), and therefore zinc has to travel in the phloem bound to a metal chelator, which often appear to be nicotianamine (Curie et al., 2009; Nishiyama et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important goal of micronutrient biofortification is to enhance the amount of bioavailable zinc in the edible seed of cereals and more specifically in the endosperm. The picture is starting to emerge for how zinc is translocated from the soil through the mother plant to the developing seed. On this journey, zinc is transported from symplast to symplast via multiple apoplastic spaces. During each step, zinc is imported into a symplast before it is exported again. Cellular import and export of zinc requires passage through biological membranes, which makes membrane-bound transporters of zinc especially interesting as potential transport bottlenecks. Inside the cell, zinc can be imported into or exported out of organelles by other transporters. The function of several membrane proteins involved in the transport of zinc across the tonoplast, chloroplast or plasma membranes are currently known. These include members of the ZIP (ZRT-IRT-like Protein), and MTP (Metal Tolerance Protein) and heavy metal ATPase (HMA) families. An important player in the transport process is the ligand nicotianamine that binds zinc to increase its solubility in living cells and in this way buffers the intracellular zinc concentration.
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