Article

How to Treat Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: Surgical Techniques and New Trends AAOS Exhibit Selection

III Clinic of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna 20136, Italy.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Impact Factor: 4.31). 01/2012; 94(1):e1(1-8). DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.K.00748
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Osteochondritis dissecans is a relatively common cause of knee pain. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of five different surgical techniques in a series of sixty patients with osteochondritis dissecans.
Sixty patients (age 22.4 ± 7.4 years, sixty-two knees) with osteochondritis dissecans of a femoral condyle (forty-five medial and seventeen lateral) were treated with osteochondral autologous transplantation, autologous chondrocyte implantation with bone graft, biomimetic nanostructured osteochondral scaffold (MaioRegen) implantation, bone-cartilage paste graft, or a "one-step" bone-marrow-derived cell transplantation technique. Preoperative and follow-up evaluation included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, the EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) score, radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging.
The global mean IKDC score improved from 40.1 ± 14.3 preoperatively to 77.2 ± 21.3 (p < 0.0005) at 5.3 ± 4.7 years of follow-up, and the EQ-VAS improved from 51.7 ± 17.0 to 83.5 ± 18.3 (p < 0.0005). No influence of age, lesion size, duration of follow-up, or previous surgical procedures on the result was found. The only difference among the results of the surgical procedures was a trend toward better results following autologous chondrocyte implantation (p = 0.06).
All of the techniques were effective in achieving good clinical and radiographic results in patients with osteochondritis dissecans, and the effectiveness of autologous chondrocyte implantation was confirmed at a mean follow-up of five years. Newer techniques such as MaioRegen implantation and the "one-step" transplantation technique are based on different rationales; the first relies on the characteristics of the scaffold and the second on the regenerative potential of mesenchymal cells. Both of these newer procedures have the advantage of being minimally invasive and requiring a single operation.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Elizaveta Kon, Jan 21, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
266 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee primarily affects subchondral bone, with a secondary effect on the overlying articular cartilage. This process can lead to pain, effusions, and loose body formation. While stable juvenile lesions often respond well to nonoperative management, unstable juvenile lesions, as well as symptomatic adult lesions, often require operative intervention. Short-term goals focus on symptomatic relief, while long-term expectations include the hope of preventing early-onset arthritis. Surgical options include debridement, loose body removal, microfracture, arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation, subchondral drilling, osteochondral autograft or allograft transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Newer single-stage cell-based procedures have also been developed, utilizing mesenchymal stem cells and matrix augmentation. Proper treatment requires evaluation of both lesional (size, depth, stability) and patient (age, athletic level) characteristics.
    Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine 02/2013; DOI:10.1007/s12178-013-9156-0
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Joint pain and swelling are typical symptoms in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and these are often related to inflammation of the joint. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD), that is separation of a bone-cartilage segment from the articular surface, can manifest with similar symptoms. Findings We studied thirteen cases of osteochondritis dissecans lesions (OCD) in children with JIA. There were nine girls and four boys with a mean age of 6.5 (2–12) years at the time of diagnosis of JIA. Mean time between diagnosis of JIA and manifestation of OCD was 5.5 (1–11) years. Indications for MRI were the presence of pain or discomfort in the joint, despite otherwise effective treatment, with no evidence from ultrasound examination of any obvious signs of active inflammation. The most common location of osteochondral lesion was the knee, although the ankle joint was affected in one case. Five patients had lesions in both knees. Operative treatment was needed in eight cases (joints). Conclusions Pain, and minor dysfunction of the joint are common complaints of children suffering from JIA. Earlier research has discounted the possibility of children who were not athletes presenting with this condition. However, this study demonstrates that these lesions also seem to be relatively common in patients with JIA. When there is no sign of inflammation, the possibility of OCD must therefore be considered in these children.
    Pediatric Rheumatology 05/2013; 11(1):18. DOI:10.1186/1546-0096-11-18 · 1.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Large osteochondral defects involve two different tissues characterized by different intrinsic healing capacity. Different techniques have been proposed to treat these lesions with results still under discussion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of 19 patients treated with a type I collagen-hydroxyapatite nanostructural biomimetic osteochondral scaffold at minimum follow-up of 2 years. Twenty lesions, 19 patients were treated with this scaffold implantation. The lesions size went from 4 to 8 cm(2) (mean size 5.2 ± 1.6 cm(2)). All patients were clinically evaluated using the International Repair Cartilage Society score, the Tegner Score and EQ-VAS. MRI was performed at 12 and 24 months after surgery and then every 12 months and evaluated with magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue scoring scale. The IKDC subjective score improved from a mean score of 35.7 ± 6.3 at the baseline evaluation to 67.7 ± 13.4 at 12-month follow-up (p < 0.0005). A further improvement was documented from 12 to 24 months (mean score of 72.9 ± 12.4 at 24 months) (p < 0.0005). The IKDC objective score confirmed the results. The Tegner activity score improvement was statistically significant (p < 0.0005). The EQ-VAS showed a significant improvement from 3.15 ± 1.09 to 7.35 ± 1.14 (p < 0.0005) at 2-year follow-up. The lesion' site seems to influence the results showing a better outcome in the patients affected in the medial femoral condyle. The use of the MaioRegen scaffold is a good procedure for the treatment for large osteochondral defects where other classic techniques are difficult to apply. It is an open one-step surgery with promising stable results at medium follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00167-013-2717-3 · 2.84 Impact Factor