We have shown that as renal function deteriorates, the circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm shifts to a nondipper pattern and the duration until nocturnal BP decline [dipping time (DT)] is prolonged. We investigated whether or not morning hypertension (BP 2 h after awakening >135/85 mmHg) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) was sustained type with a prolonged DT.
Twenty-four-hour BP was monitored in 104 patients with CKD. Fifty-one of 104 participants (group A) did not exhibit morning hypertension. The patients with morning hypertension (group B, n=53) were classified into three groups: group C (n=23), participants who exhibited morning hypertension but did not meet the criteria for the surge or sustained type; group D (n=29), the sustained type (with no night-time BP readings <120/70 mmHg); and group E (n=1), the surge type (systolic BP rises >25 mmHg after awakening).
The night/day BP ratio and DT were compared among groups A, C, and D because there was only one participant in group E. Night/day ratio of BP and DT were both significantly higher in group D compared with groups A and C. The prevalence of nondippers tended to be higher in group D compared with the other groups (A, 65%; C, 57%; D, 86%, P=0.09). Creatinine clearance was significantly lower in group D compared with groups A and C.
Sustained elevation of night-time BP until the early morning and high night/day ratio of BP may contribute to the high frequency of morning hypertension, which is generally the sustained rather than the surge type in CKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 20 million adults in the United States. Patients with CKD have an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides superior BP measurements when compared to office BP measurements in normotensive, hypertensive and CKD patients. ABPM measurements are often abnormal in CKD, with CKD patients frequently showing an altered circadian rhythm with an increased rate of non-dipping and reverse dipping. The prevalence of non-dippers and reverse-dippers increases progressively as stage of CKD progresses. ABPM has been shown to be a better tool for predicting CV risk, CKD progression, end stage renal disease (ESRD) or death than office-based pressures. ABPM is also additive and adds prognostic value for predicting CKD and CV outcomes when added to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Although ABPM is time consuming, it is worth considering, as the data demonstrates that information from ABPM can potentially impact future CV and renal outcomes in patients with CKD.
Current Hypertension Reports 04/2013; 15(3). DOI:10.1007/s11906-013-0339-2 · 3.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morning hypertension (HTN) and nocturnal non-dipping (ND) are closely associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular events. However, their importance in diabetics with advanced renal disease is unclear. We evaluated the relationships of morning HTN and ND with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria, and determined the risk of morning HTN and ND according to presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage. A total of 1312 patients, including 439 with diabetes, were prospectively recruited at 21 centers in Korea. All patients had HTN and an eGFR of 15-89 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2). Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure was assessed. The rates of morning HTN (25.2% vs. 13.6%, P<0.001) and ND (58.2% vs. 48.2%, P=0.002) were higher in diabetics than in non-diabetics. eGFR was correlated with ND in all patients (P<0.05) and with morning HTN only in non-diabetics (P=0.005). Proteinuria was related to ND in all patients (P<0.05) and to morning HTN only in diabetics (P=0.001). In a regression analysis, the risk of morning HTN was 2.093 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.070-4.094) for the DMCKD2 group, 1.634 (95% CI: 1.044-2.557) for the CKD3-4-only group and 2.236 (95% CI: 1.401-3.570) for the DMCKD3-4 group compared with the CKD2-only group. The risk of ND was high for stage 3-4 CKD: 1.581 (95% CI: 1.180-2.120) for non-diabetics and 1.842 (95% CI: 1.348-2.601) for diabetics. Diabetics showed higher rates of morning HTN, ND and uncontrolled sustained HTN compared with non-diabetics with CKD of the same stages.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 27 August 2015; doi:10.1038/hr.2015.89.
Hypertension Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/hr.2015.89 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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