Sleep desaturation and its relationship to lung function, exercise and quality of life in LAM

Interstitial Lung Disease Group, Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo 05403-900, SP, Brazil.
Respiratory medicine (Impact Factor: 3.09). 01/2012; 106(3):420-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.rmed.2011.12.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterised by progressive airway obstruction and hypoxaemia in young women. Although sleep may trigger hypoxaemia in patients with airway obstruction, it has not been previously investigated in patients with LAM.
Consecutive women with lung biopsy proven LAM and absence of hypoxaemia while awake were evaluated with pulmonary function test, echocardiography, 6-min walk test, overnight full polysomnography, and Short Form 36 health-related quality-of-life questionnaire.
Twenty-five patients with (mean±SD) age 45±10 years, SpO(2) awake 95%±2, forced expiratory volume in the first second (median-interquartile) FEV(1)(% predicted) 77 (47-90) and carbonic monoxide diffusion capacity, DL(CO) (%) 55 (34-74) were evaluated. Six-minute walk test distance and minimum SpO(2) (median-interquartile) were, respectively, 447m (411-503) and 90% (82-94). Median-interquartile apnoea-hypopnoea index was in the normal range 2 (1-5). Fourteen patients (56%) had nocturnal hypoxaemia (10% total sleep time with SpO(2) <90%), and the median sleep time spent with SpO(2) <90% was 136 (13-201)min. Sleep time spent with SpO(2) <90% correlated with the residual volume/total lung capacity ratio (r(s)=0.5, p: 0.02), DL(CO) (r(s)=-0.7, p: 0.001), FEV(1) (r(s)=-0.6, p: 0.002). Multivariate linear regression model showed that RV/TLC ratio was the most important functional variable related to sleep hypoxaemia.
Significant hypoxaemia during sleep is common in LAM patients with normal SpO(2) while awake, especially among those with some degree of hyperinflation in lung function tests.

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Available from: Carlos R R Carvalho, Jul 26, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by exercise performance impairment. Although airflow limitation is common, no previous studies have evaluated the prevalence and impact of dynamic hyperinflation (DH) in LAM. To investigate the dynamic responses during maximal exercise and the prevalence, predictors, and repercussions of DH in LAM. Forty-two patients with LAM performed symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise and pulmonary functions tests (PFTs) and were compared with 10 age-matched healthy women. Dyspnea intensity, inspiratory capacity, oxygen saturation, and cardiac, metabolic, and respiratory variables were assessed during exercise. Patients with LAM also performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Patients with LAM had higher baseline dyspnea, poorer quality of life, obstructive pattern, air trapping, and reduced diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in PFTs. Although they had the same level of regular physical activity, their maximal exercise performance was reduced and was associated with ventilatory limitation, greater desaturation, and dyspnea. The prevalence of DH was high in LAM (55%), even in patients with mild spirometric abnormalities, and was correlated with airflow obstruction, air trapping, and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. Compared with the non-DH subgroup, the patients who developed DH had a ventilatory limitation contributing to exercise cessation on cycling and higher desaturation and dyspnea intensity during the 6MWT. Ventilatory limitation and gas exchange impairment are important causes of exercise limitation in LAM. DH is frequent in LAM, even in patients with mild spirometric abnormalities. DH was associated with the severity of disease, higher dyspnea, and lower oxygen saturation. In the 6MWT, desaturation and dyspnea were greater in patients with DH.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2012; 186(4):341-8. DOI:10.1164/rccm.201203-0372OC · 13.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent studies suggest poor sleep quality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, so far, the impact of IPF-related sleep breathing disorders (SBDs) on survival has not been extensively studied. Methods: In a cohort of 31 (24 males) treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed consecutive IPF patients, we prospectively investigated the relationship of SBD parameters such as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), maximal difference in oxygen saturation between wakefulness and sleep (maxdiff SpO2), and lowest sleep oxygen saturation (lowest SpO2) with clinical (survival, dyspnea, daytime sleepiness), pulmonary function, submaximal (6-min walk test [6MWT]) and maximal exercise variables (cardiopulmonary exercise test [CPET]), and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). Results: Sleep oxygen desaturation exceeded significantly that of maximal exercise (p < 0.001). Maxdiff SpO2 was inversely related to survival, DLCO%, and SpO2 after 6MWT, and directly with dyspnea, AHI, and RVSP. The lowest SpO2 was directly related to survival and to functional (TLC%, DLCO%) as well as submaximal and maximal exercise variables (6MWT distance, SpO2 after 6MWT, peak oxygen consumption/kg, SpO2 at peak exercise), while an inverse association with dyspnea score, AHI, and RVSP was observed. Conclusions: Our findings provide evidence that intermittent sleep oxygen desaturation significantly exceeds that of maximal exercise and is associated with survival in IPF patients. Furthermore, they imply the existence of a link between lung damage and apnea events resulting to the induction and severity of intermittent sleep oxygen desaturation that aggravate pulmonary arterial hypertension and influence IPF survival.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 06/2013; 9(6):593-601. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.2758 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease that promotes pulmonary cystic destruction and impairs pulmonary function. We aim to describe features and clinical course of LAM patients from Brazil. Methods: We described the clinical and functional features, performance in six minute walk test (6MWT), management details, survival and clinical course of 84 LAM patients followed in a Brazilian reference centre. Results: All subjects were women, the average age at onset of symptoms was 38 years, and the average at diagnosis was 42 years. The major symptoms during the course of the disease were dyspnoea and pneumothorax. The patients experienced impaired quality of life, with worse scores in the physical and emotional domains. The most common abnormalities in pulmonary function tests were an obstructive pattern and reduced diffusion capacity, whereas a quarter of the patients had normal spirometric results. In the 6MWT, although patients had preserved exercise capacity, more than half of the patients had significant desaturation. Hormonal blockage and doxycycline were the most common treatment modalities employed in our patients. The survival probability from diagnosis was 90% at 5 years, whereas the mean annual rate of decline in FEV1 was 60 ± 78 mL. Conclusions: Clinical and functional features of the LAM patients from our centre are similar to those from other countries. Our sample showed preserved exercise capacity, with desaturation in the 6MWT, and impaired quality of life. Survival was similar, whereas the annual rate of decline of FEV1 was slightly lower than in recent studies.
    Sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and diffuse lung diseases: official journal of WASOG / World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders 07/2014; 31(2):129-135. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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