Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome clinical findings: evaluating a surveillance case definition.
ABSTRACT Clinical cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) can be challenging to differentiate from other acute respiratory diseases, which can lead to delays in diagnosis, treatment, and disease reporting. Rapid onset of severe disease occurs, at times before diagnostic test results are available. This study's objective was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients that would indicate HPS to aid in detection and reporting. Test results of blood samples from U.S. patients suspected of having HPS submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1998-2010 were reviewed. Patient information collected by case report forms was compared between HPS-confirmed and test-negative patients. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for individual clinical findings and combinations of variables. Of 567 patients included, 36% were HPS-confirmed. Thrombocytopenia, chest x-rays with suggestive signs, and receiving supplemental oxygenation were highly sensitive (>95%), while elevated hematocrit was highly specific (83%) in detecting HPS. Combinations that maximized sensitivity required the presence of thrombocytopenia. Using a national sample of suspect patients, we found that thrombocytopenia was a highly sensitive indicator of HPS and should be included in surveillance definitions for suspected HPS. Using a sensitive suspect case definition to identify potential HPS patients that are confirmed by highly specific diagnostic testing will ensure accurate reporting of this disease.
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ABSTRACT: Viral hemorrhagic diseases are a group of systemic viral infections with worldwide distribution and are significant causes of global mortality and morbidity. The hallmarks of viral hemorrhagic fevers are plasma leakage, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy and hemorrhagic manifestations. The molecular mechanisms leading to plasma leakage in viral hemorrhagic fevers are not well understood. A common theme has emerged in which a complex interplay between pathogens, host immune response, and endothelial cells leads to the activation of endothelial cells and perturbation of barrier integrity. In this article, two clinically distinct viral hemorrhagic fevers caused by dengue viruses and hantaviruses are discussed to highlight their similarities and differences that may provide insights into the pathogenesis and therapeutic approach.Cell and Tissue Research 03/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hantaviruses are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect many species of rodents, shrews, moles and bats. Infection in these reservoir hosts is almost asymptomatic, but some rodent-borne hantaviruses also infect humans, causing either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In this Review, we discuss the basic molecular properties and cell biology of hantaviruses and offer an overview of virus-induced pathology, in particular vascular leakage and immunopathology.Nature Reviews Microbiology 07/2013; 11(8):539-50. · 23.32 Impact Factor