An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.
ABSTRACT Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.
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ABSTRACT: The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry.Virology 01/2014; s 454–455:109–117. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The impact of morbilliviruses on both human and animal populations is well documented in the history of mankind. Indeed, prior to the development of vaccines for these diseases, morbilliviruses plagued both humans and their livestock that were heavily relied upon for food and motor power within communities. Measles virus (MeV) was responsible for the death of millions of people annually across the world and those fortunate enough to escape the disease often faced starvation where their livestock had died following infection with rinderpest virus (RPV) or peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Canine distemper virus has affected dog populations for centuries and in the past few decades appears to have jumped species, now causing disease in a number of non-canid species, some of which are been pushed to the brink of extinction by the virus. During the age of vaccination, the introduction and successful application of vaccines against rinderpest and measles has led to the eradication of the former and the greater control of the latter. Vaccines against PPR and canine distemper have also been generated; however, the diseases still pose a threat to susceptible species. Here we review the currently available vaccines against these four morbilliviruses and discuss the prospects for the development of new generation vaccines.Vaccine 04/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Measles virus (MV) is being considered for global eradication, which would likely reduce compliance with MV vaccination. As a result children will grow up without MV-specific immunity, creating a potential niche for closely related animal morbilliviruses such as canine distemper virus (CDV). Natural CDV infection causing clinical signs has never been reported in humans, but recent outbreaks in captive macaques have shown that CDV can cause disease in primates. We studied virulence and tropism of recombinant CDV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in naive and measles-vaccinated cynomolgus macaques. In naive animals CDV caused viremia and fever and predominantly infected CD150(+) lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Virus was re-isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract, but infection of epithelial or neuronal cells was not detectable at the time points examined and the infections were self-limiting. This demonstrates that CDV readily infects non-human primates, but suggests that additional mutations are necessary to achieve full virulence in non-natural hosts. Partial protection against CDV was observed in measles-vaccinated macaques, as demonstrated by accelerated control of virus replication and limited shedding from the upper respiratory tract. While neither CDV infection nor MV vaccination induced detectable cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, MV-specific neutralizing antibody levels of MV-vaccinated macaques were boosted by CDV challenge infection, suggesting that cross-reactive VN epitopes exist. Rapid increases in white blood cell counts in MV-vaccinated macaques following CDV challenge suggested that cross-reactive cellular immune responses were also present. This study demonstrates that zoonotic morbillivirus infections can be controlled by measles vaccination.Importance Paragraph Throughout history viral zoonoses have had a substantial impact on human health. Given the drive towards global eradication of measles it is essential to understand the zoonotic potential of animal morbilliviruses. Morbilliviruses are thought to have evolved from a common ancestral virus that jumped species and adapted to new hosts. Recently canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus normally restricted to carnivores, caused disease outbreaks in non-human primates. Here we report that experimental CDV infection of monkeys resulted in fever and leukopenia. The virus replicated to high levels in lymphocytes, but did not spread to epithelial cells or the central nervous system. Importantly, like measles virus in macaques, the infections were self-limiting. In measles-vaccinated macaques CDV was cleared more rapidly resulting in limited virus shedding from the upper respiratory tract. These studies demonstrate that although CDV can readily infect primates, measles immunity is protective and CDV infection is self-limiting.Journal of Virology 02/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor