Extraneural Metastasis of a Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumor of the Central Nervous System in a Pediatric Patient With a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
ABSTRACT We describe the case of a 7-year-old white boy who presented with a mixed malignant germ cell tumor with predominant embryonal carcinoma component. The patient underwent right ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement for hydrocephalus at the time of diagnosis. He received multiagent chemotherapy followed by second-look surgery. Despite an initial response to chemotherapy, the patient had metastatic progression of disease within the craniospinal axis. He received craniospinal radiation and high-dose chemotherapy. Although, he had resolution of central nervous system (CNS) disease, follow-up off treatment revealed extra-abdominal metastases. This is a rare case to discuss abdominal metastasis of a CNS germ cell tumor in a patient with a VP shunt. The influence of VP shunt placement on treatment and management decisions of patients with CNS tumors will be discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Three cases of rare primary intracranial yolk sac tumor are reported. Two cases had a pineal location, whereas the third presented as a suprasellar mass. After the placement of ventriculoperitoneal shunts for relief of hydrocephalus, all of the patients developed metastases restricted to the peritoneum, as demonstrated by autopsy in one patient (Case 1) and clinical and radiographic evidence in two patients (Cases 2 and 3). The peritoneal metastases were directly associated with the death of one patient, but were successfully treated with chemotherapy in another patient, who is still alive more than 2.5 years after initial presentation. The value of ascitic fluid cytology and alpha-fetoprotein determination in the diagnosis of this complication was demonstrated in one patient. These cases emphasize the need for awareness of this mode of metastasis and its potentially lethal effect.Neurosurgery 10/1979; 5(3):356-64. DOI:10.1227/00006123-197909000-00010 · 3.03 Impact Factor
Journal of Neurosurgery 08/1969; 31(1):50-8. DOI:10.3171/jns.1969.31.1.0050 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the past, extraneural metastasis of central nervous system tumors was considered to be a rare event. However, more recently, a considerable body of literature has accumulated so that to date some 282 patients with extraneural metastases have been reported. Of these reported cases, 40.4% have occurred in children. Although central nervous system tumors can spread spontaneously beyond the confines of the central nervous system, most instances of extraneural metastasis occur after craniotomy or diversionary cerebrospinal fluid shunting. Extraneural metastases are universally fatal. Although it is not curative, chemotherapeutic treatment of metastases may greatly decrease the patient's discomfort and improve the quality and duration of survival. Every effort should be made to prevent this complication by avoiding diversionary cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures or by incorporating a filtering device if a shunt becomes necessary.Cancer 11/1985; 56(7 Suppl):1778-82. · 4.90 Impact Factor