[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced age is the main risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional deficits in humans, but the fundamental mechanisms that drive ageing remain largely unknown, impeding the development of interventions that might delay or prevent age-related disorders and maximize healthy lifespan. Cellular senescence, which halts the proliferation of damaged or dysfunctional cells, is an important mechanism to constrain the malignant progression of tumour cells. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs with ageing and have been hypothesized to disrupt tissue structure and function because of the components they secrete. However, whether senescent cells are causally implicated in age-related dysfunction and whether their removal is beneficial has remained unknown. To address these fundamental questions, we made use of a biomarker for senescence, p16(Ink4a), to design a novel transgene, INK-ATTAC, for inducible elimination of p16(Ink4a)-positive senescent cells upon administration of a drug. Here we show that in the BubR1 progeroid mouse background, INK-ATTAC removes p16(Ink4a)-positive senescent cells upon drug treatment. In tissues--such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and eye--in which p16(Ink4a) contributes to the acquisition of age-related pathologies, life-long removal of p16(Ink4a)-expressing cells delayed onset of these phenotypes. Furthermore, late-life clearance attenuated progression of already established age-related disorders. These data indicate that cellular senescence is causally implicated in generating age-related phenotypes and that removal of senescent cells can prevent or delay tissue dysfunction and extend healthspan.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sir2 is a conserved deacetylase that modulates life span in yeast, worms, and flies and stress response in mammals. In yeast, Sir2 is required for maintaining replicative life span, and increasing Sir2 dosage can delay replicative aging. We address the role of Sir2 in regulating chronological life span in yeast. Lack of Sir2 along with calorie restriction and/or mutations in the yeast AKT homolog, Sch9, or Ras pathways causes a dramatic chronological life-span extension. Inactivation of Sir2 causes uptake and catabolism of ethanol and upregulation of many stress-resistance and sporulation genes. These changes while sufficient to extend chronological life span in wild-type yeast require severe calorie restriction or additional mutations to extend life span of sir2Delta mutants. Our results demonstrate that effects of SIR2 on chronological life span are opposite to replicatve life span and suggest that the relevant activities of Sir2-like deacetylases may also be complex in higher eukaryotes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In yeast, chronological senescence (CS) is defined as loss of viability in stationary culture. Although its relevance to the organismal aging remained unclear, yeast CS was one of the most fruitful models in aging research. Here we described a mammalian replica of yeast CS: loss of viability of overgrown "yellow" cancer cell culture. In a density and time (chronological)-dependent manner, cell culture loses the ability to re-grow in fresh medium. Rapamycin dramatically decelerated CS. Loss of viability was caused by acidification of the medium by lactic acid (lactate). Rapamycin decreased production of lactate, making conditioned medium (CM) less deadly. Both deadly CM and lactate caused loss of viability in low cell density, not preventable by either rapamycin or additional glucose. Also, NAC, LY294002, U0126, GSK733, which all indirectly inhibit mTOR and have been shown to suppress the senescent phenotype in traditional models of mammalian cell senescence, also decreased lactate production and decelerated CS. We discuss that although CS does not mimic organismal aging, the same signal transduction pathways that drive CS also drive aging.
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