Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier Transform was applied and oscillatory activity examined from 1 to 120 Hz at 15 regional sources. Associations between oscillatory anomalies and symptom severity were probed. Children with ASD exhibited regionally specific elevations in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and high frequency (20-120 Hz) power, supporting an imbalance of neural excitation/inhibition as a neurobiological feature of ASD. Increased temporal and parietal alpha power was associated with greater symptom severity and thus is of particular interest.
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"Tsiaras et al. (2011) showed reduced interdependence strength within bilateral frontal and temporal sensors, as well as between temporal sensors and other recording sites in a group of ASD participants . Cornew et al. (2012) indicated that children with ASD exhibited regionally specific elevations in delta ( "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent condition with core deficits in the social domain. Understanding its neuroetiology is critical to providing insights into the relationship between neuroanatomy, physiology and social behaviors, including imitation learning, language, empathy, theory of mind, and even self-awareness. Equally important is the need to find ways to arrest its increasing prevalence and to ameliorate its symptoms. In this review, we highlight neurofeedback studies as viable treatment options for high-functioning as well as low-functioning children with ASD. Lower-functioning groups have the greatest need for diagnosis and treatment, the greatest barrier to communication, and may experience the greatest benefit if a treatment can improve function or prevent progression of the disorder at an early stage. Therefore, we focus on neurofeedback interventions combined with other kinds of behavioral conditioning to induce neuroplastic changes that can address the full spectrum of the autism phenotype.
Frontiers in Neuroengineering 08/2014; 7:29. DOI:10.3389/fneng.2014.00029
"Resting state investigations exploring oscillatory activity have only very recently emerged [57-59] consistent with efforts to more fully characterize global aberrant connectivity patterns in ASD. Indeed, Tsiaras et al., reported finding attenuated short-range connectivity in adults with ASD within bilateral temporal and frontal regions and left parietal regions, although significant differences between specific frequency bands were not apparent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Gaze processing deficits are a seminal, early, and enduring behavioral deficit in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, a comprehensive characterization of the neural processes mediating abnormal gaze processing in ASD has yet to be conducted.
This study investigated whole-brain patterns of neural synchrony during passive viewing of direct and averted eye gaze in ASD adolescents and young adults (M Age = 16.6) compared to neurotypicals (NT) (M Age = 17.5) while undergoing magnetoencephalography. Coherence between each pair of 54 brain regions within each of three frequency bands (low frequency (0 to 15 Hz), beta (15 to 30 Hz), and low gamma (30 to 45 Hz)) was calculated.
Significantly higher coherence and synchronization in posterior brain regions (temporo-parietal-occipital) across all frequencies was evident in ASD, particularly within the low 0 to 15 Hz frequency range. Higher coherence in fronto-temporo-parietal regions was noted in NT. A significantly higher number of low frequency cross-hemispheric synchronous connections and a near absence of right intra-hemispheric coherence in the beta frequency band were noted in ASD. Significantly higher low frequency coherent activity in bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortical regions and higher gamma band coherence in right temporo-parieto-occipital brain regions during averted gaze was related to more severe symptomology as reported on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R).
The preliminary results suggest a pattern of aberrant connectivity that includes higher low frequency synchronization in posterior cortical regions, lack of long-range right hemispheric beta and gamma coherence, and decreased coherence in fronto-temporo-parietal regions necessary for orienting to shifts in eye gaze in ASD; a critical behavior essential for social communication.
"The PSD analysis revealed a large upward shift in the power spectrum that was particularly prominent in the alpha band, such that children with ASD displayed increased power in delta and lower beta, as well as decreased power in alpha, higher beta, and gamma. These data are consistent with the literature on power spectra (Murias et al. 2007; Coben et al. 2008; Cornew et al. 2012; Tierney et al. 2012; Lushchekina et al. 2013), but they also provide 2 significant advances in this regard. First, our multivariate analysis demonstrates that the various band-specific group differences are not independent of each other, but occur together as part of a large shift in the entire power spectrum (Fig. 4B). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes deficits in social cognition, communication, and executive function. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that ASD disrupts the structural and functional organization of brain networks and, presumably, how they generate information. Here, we relate deficits in an aspect of cognitive control to network-level disturbances in information processing. We recorded magnetoencephalography while children with ASD and typically developing controls performed a set-shifting task designed to test mental flexibility. We used multiscale entropy (MSE) to estimate the rate at which information was generated in a set of sources distributed across the brain. Multivariate partial least-squares analysis revealed 2 distributed networks, operating at fast and slow time scales, that respond completely differently to set shifting in ASD compared with control children, indicating disrupted temporal organization within these networks. Moreover, when typically developing children engaged these networks, they achieved faster reaction times. When children with ASD engaged these networks, there was no improvement in performance, suggesting that the networks were ineffective in children with ASD. Our data demonstrate that the coordination and temporal organization of large-scale neural assemblies during the performance of cognitive control tasks is disrupted in children with ASD, contributing to executive function deficits in this group.