CRP and acute renal rejection: a marker to the point
ABSTRACT C-reactive protein (CRP) is increased in end-stage renal disease patients. Recent studies have shown positive associations between inflammatory markers and cardiovascular mortality in kidney transplant recipients. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between CRP and early detection of renal allograft rejection. Furthermore, investigate the association between pretransplant levels of CRP with the development of acute renal allograft rejection as a possible predictive marker.
Ninety-one renal transplant recipients were sequentially analyzed. The median follow up of patients was 8 weeks. Basal and 8 weeks post transplant CRP levels were assessed.
CRP levels were significantly higher in allograft rejection both in the pretransplant (n = 25, P = 0.001) and postransplant (n = 33, P = 0.001) phases when compared to those without rejection. By stepwise multiple regression analysis, rejection in transplanted patients was independently correlated to albumin/creatinine ratio and CRP 8 weeks after transplantation.
Elevated pretransplant serum CRP level is a risk predictor for acute rejection episodes and may be a useful predictive marker in the follow-up of post-transplantation patients.
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ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) is regarded as a inflammatory biomarker in acute kidney injury (AKI), but its exact role in AKI remains unclear. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of CRP in AKI. Clinically, elevated serum CRP were closely associated with an increased serum creatinine and urea (p<0.01) in patients with AKI, which was declined when AKI recovered. To determine the role of CRP in AKI, an ischemia-reperfusion mouse model of AKI was induced in transgenic (Tg) mice that express human CRP. Compared to wild type mice, CRP Tg mice developed more severe renal injury at 24h after ischemia determined by significantly increased serum creatinine and tubular necrosis. This was associated with impaired tubular epithelial cells (TEC) regeneration as evidenced by over 60% reduction in PCNA+ and BrdU+ TEC in CRP Tg mice with AKI. In vitro, addition of CRP to a human TEC line (HK-2) also largely suppressed the proliferation of TEC. The functional role of CRP in AKI was further demonstrated by the blocking CRP binding to its FcγRII with a neutralizing anti-CD32 antibody restoring the TEC proliferation and preventing AKI in CRP Tg mice. Moreover, we found that impaired G1/S transition by suppressing phosphorylation of CDK2 and expression of cyclin E may be a key mechanism by which CRP inhibited TEC regeneration during the AKI repair process. Conclusively, CRP plays a pathogenic role in AKI by inhibiting G1/S-dependent TEC regeneration. Results from this study suggest that targeting CRP signaling may offer a new therapeutic potential for AKI.Clinical Science 11/2013; DOI:10.1042/CS20130471 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was the evaluation of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration as a marker of the inflammatory state in many different thyroid diseases and its dependence on the stage and duration of disease. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 444 randomly selected patients with different kinds of thyroid disease (106 men and 338 women, ranging 18-72 years of age; mean 56.2 ± 5.0 years; median 52 years). Group 1 (G1) comprised 250 patients with hyperthyroidism. Group 2 (G2) consisted of 72 euthyroid patients. Group 3 (G3) consisted of 122 patients with hypothyroidism. Free T4, free T3, and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were measured using the electrochemiluminescent method. Human serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies (Tg-Abs), thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (TPO-Abs), and autoantibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR-Abs) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The high-sensitive CRP (Hs-CRP) level (reference range <3 mg/L) was determined with a highly sensitive latex-based immunoassay. The mean value of Hs-CRP in G1 was 3.6 ± 2.8 mg/L, in G2 2.5 ± 1.5 mg/L and in G3 5.9 ± 5.8 mg/L. Hs-CRP (in mg/L) medians, interquartile and the total ranges in G1 were 3.0 (2.0 [0.1-21.0] 4.0); in G2: 2.3 [1.8 (0.2-9.2) 3.2]; and in G3: 4.3 [2.2 (0.3-31.5) 7.8]. We found statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis test) in serum Hs-CRP values between G1 and G2 (P = 0.007), G1 and G3 (P = 0.001), G2 and G3 (P < 0.001). In G1, statistically significant correlation was confirmed between Hs-CRP and Tg-Abs (r = -0.22, P = 0.0016), CRP and TPO-Abs (r = -0.26, P < 0.001), and also between Hs-CRP and TSHR-Abs (r = -0.18, P = 0.02). In the remaining cases, differences between Hs-CRP and TSH levels (r = -0.09, P = 0.16) were not statistically significant. In G2, no statistically significant correlation was observed: Hs-CRP and Tg-Abs (r = -0.18, P = 0.13), Hs-CRP and TPO-Abs (r = -0.17, P = 0.15), Hs-CRP and TSH (r = 0.01, P = 0.91), Hs-CRP and TSHR-Abs (r = -0.19, P = 0.17). In G3, a statistically significant correlation was confirmed between Hs-CRP and Tg-Abs (r = 0.22, P = 0.012), Hs-CRP and TSH (r = -0.28, P = 0.001). No statistically significant correlation was observed between Hs-CRP and TPO-Abs (r = 0.20, P = 0.06) and between Hs-CRP and TSHR-Abs (r = -0.23, P = 0.11). Hs-CRP is increased in various types of hypothyroidism. This is particularly relevant in postpartum thyroiditis and in patients after radioiodine treatment. The impact of this situation on human health requires further research, however, one might assume that some types of thyroid disease may lead to systemic inflammatory reactions that are reflected in elevated CRP levels.Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 05/2014; 62(6). DOI:10.1007/s00005-014-0282-1 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that compared to standard glycemic control [blood glucose (BG): 70-180 mg/dL], patients randomized to intensive glycemic control (BG: 70-110 mg/dL) were at increased risk of graft rejection in renal transplantation. However, the underlying mechanisms that associate the effect of intensive glycemic control with renal transplant outcomes have not been identified. A secondary data analysis of 93 participants (n=44 intensive, n=49 control) was conducted using data from a previous randomized controlled clinical trial. We examined inflammatory biomarkers, glycemic variability, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia as potential contributing etiologies by assessing the effect of intensive glycemic control on these characteristics, and evaluate the association of these variables with graft rejection. Intensive glycemic control had no appreciable effect on highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1β, or IL-10 levels at all time points after transplantation. Moreover, neither inflammatory biomarkers nor increased glycemic variability were associated with graft rejection. However, intensive treatment increased the risk of hypoglycemia (BG <70 mg/dL, 84% vs. 25%, P<0.001). In sub-analysis, compared to non-rejecters, rejecters demonstrated higher rates of blood glucose below 70 mg/dL (90% vs. 49%, P=0.02). Inflammatory biomarkers and increased glycemic variability lack correlation with clinical outcomes in renal transplant, but importantly, increased perioperative hypoglycemic episodes (BG <70mg/dL) may be a salient etiology that contributed to the increased risk for acute allograft rejection related to intensive glycemic control. Further research is needed to confirm a causal association.Transplantation 05/2014; 98(6). DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000123 · 3.78 Impact Factor