Rapid Detection of CWD PrP: Comparison of Tests Designed for the Detection of BSE or Scrapie
ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) mainly affecting cervids in North America. The accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP(CWD) ) in the CNS and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (PrP(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. Species known to be naturally infected by CWD include Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Recently, large-scale disease eradication or control programs have been attempted to curtail the spread of disease. But reports of diseased free-ranging and farmed cervids in many locations in the USA and Canada are still continuing. The goal of this study was to find sensitive rapid test systems that are reliably able to detect CWD-associated PrP(CWD) in cervids, thereby reviewing an important control tool in case the disease spreads further and reaches Europe. Seven tests, originally developed for the detection of other TSE diseases such as Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including two Western blots, four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and one lateral flow device, were included in this study. All seven tests evaluated were able to detect pathogenic prion proteins (PrP(CWD) ) in Northern American infected animals and distinguish physiologic prion protein (PrP(c) ) in brainstem (obex region) and lymph node samples from North American and European cervids, respectively. However, the specificity and sensitivity of the tests differed significantly. Highly sensitive tests for the detection of prion proteins are an important tool both for the design of effective disease surveillance and control strategies and the safety of the food chain. Thus, this study contributes to the emergency preparedness against CWD.
SourceAvailable from: Ester Vazquez Fernandez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infectious proteins (prions) are, ironically, defined by their resistance to proteolytic digestion. A defining characteristic of the transmissible isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) is its partial resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. Diagnosis of prion disease typically relies upon immunodetection of PK-digested PrP(Sc) by Western blot, ELISA or immunohistochemical detection. PK digestion has also been used to detect differences in prion strains. Thus, PK has been a crucial tool to detect and, thereby, control the spread of prions. PK has also been used as a tool to probe the structure of PrP(Sc). Mass spectrometry and antibodies have been used to identify PK cleavage sites in PrP(Sc). These results have been used to identify the more accessible, flexible stretches connecting the β-strand components in PrP(Sc). These data, combined with physical constraints imposed by spectroscopic results, were used to propose a qualitative model for the structure of PrP(Sc). Assuming that PrP(Sc) is a four rung β-solenoid, we have threaded the PrP sequence to satisfy the PK proteolysis data and other experimental constraints. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Virus Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2015.03.008 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the usefulness of retina samples for detection of disease-associated prion protein by use of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) intended for rapid identification of sheep and cattle with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Samples-Retina, brainstem at the level of the obex, and retropharyngeal lymph node samples obtained from 15 TSE-inoculated sheep (scrapie [n = 13] or transmissible mink encephalopathy passaged through a bovid ); retina and brainstem samples obtained from 11 TSE-inoculated cattle (transmissible mink encephalopathy passaged through a bovid  or classical BSE ); and negative control tissue samples obtained from 2 sheep and 2 cattle that were not inoculated with TSEs. Procedures-Tissue samples were homogenized and analyzed for detection of abnormally folded disease-associated prion protein with a commercially available EIA and 2 confirmatory assays (western blot analysis or immunohistochemical analysis). Results-Retina sample EIA results were in agreement with results of brainstem sample EIA or confirmatory assay results for negative control animals and TSE-inoculated animals with clinical signs of disease. However, TSE-inoculated animals with positive confirmatory assay results that did not have clinical signs of disease had negative retina sample EIA results. Retina sample EIA results were in agreement with brainstem sample immunohistochemical results for 4 TSE-inoculated sheep with negative retropharyngeal lymph node EIA results. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of this study suggested that retina samples may be useful for rapid EIA screening of animals with neurologic signs to detect TSEs.American Journal of Veterinary Research 03/2014; 75(3):268-72. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.75.3.268 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prion protein (PrP) sequence of European moose, reindeer, roe deer and fallow deer in Scandinavia has high homology to the PrP sequence of North American cervids. Variants in the European moose PrP sequence were found at amino acid position 109 as K or Q. The 109Q variant is unique in the PrP sequence of vertebrates. During the 1980s a wasting syndrome in Swedish moose, Moose Wasting Syndrome (MWS), was described. SNP analysis demonstrated a difference in the observed genotype proportions of the heterozygous Q/K and homozygous Q/Q variants in the MWS animals compared with the healthy animals. In MWS moose the allele frequencies for 109K and 109Q were 0.73 and 0.27, respectively, and for healthy animals 0.69 and 0.31. Both alleles were seen as heterozygotes and homozygotes. In reindeer, PrP sequence variation was demonstrated at codon 176 as D or N and codon 225 as S or Y. The PrP sequences in roe deer and fallow deer were identical with published GenBank sequences.Prion 07/2012; 6(3):256-60. DOI:10.4161/pri.19641 · 1.97 Impact Factor