Article

Staging of prostate cancer.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
Histopathology (Impact Factor: 3.3). 01/2012; 60(1):87-117. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2011.04025.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

Full-text

Available from: Liang Cheng, Mar 26, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
260 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in various neoplastic diseases, including prostate cancer (PCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the miRNA profile in PC tissue, to assess their association with clinicopathologic data, and to evaluate the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers. Materials and Methods: From a cohort of 535 patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP), a sample of 30 patients (14 patients with rapid biochemical failure (BF) and 16 patients without BF) with Gleason score 7 were analyzed. A total of 1435 miRNAs were quantified by microarray hybridization, and selected miRNAs with the highest Standard deviation (n = 50) were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to evaluate the expression of miR-21. Results: miR-21 was the only miR that was significantly up-regulated in the BF group (p = 0.045) miR-21 was up-regulated in patients with BF compared with non-BF group (p = 0.05). In univariate analyses, high stromal expression of miR-21 had predictive impact on biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) and clinical failure-free survival (CFFS) (p = 0.006 and p = 0.04, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, high stromal expression of miR-21 expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for BFFS in patients with Gleason score 6 (HR 2.41, CI 95% 1.06-5.49, p = 0.037). Conclusion: High stromal expression of miR-21 was associated with poor biochemical recurrence-free survival after RP. For patients with Gleason score 6, miR-21 may help predict the risk of future disease progression and thereby help select patients for potential adjuvant treatment or a more stringent follow-up.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113039. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113039 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To establish predictors of clinical failure in patients operated with radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized prostate cancer (PC) by analyzing the pathological characteristics of positive surgical margins (PSM). Patients and Methods: The RP specimens of 303 consecutive patients operated with RP between 1985 and 2009 were reviewed. PSM were analyzed with regard to the PSM length, location and multifocality and the Gleason score (GS) at the PSM. Results: Of the 163 patients with PSM, 79 (48%) progressed to clinical failure compared to 30 (22%) in the negative-margin-status group. In univariate analysis, a GS at the PSM ≥4 + 3 = 7 (p = 0. 013) and a PSM length >3.0 mm (p < 0.005) were significantly associated with higher clinical failure rates compared to a GS at the PSM ≤3 + 4 = 7 and ≤3.0 mm in extent, respectively. A linear extent of the PSM ≤3.0 mm appeared to have the same clinical outcome as in the group with a negative margin status. In multivariate analysis, a PSM length >3.0 mm remained an independent predictor of clinical failure. Conclusions: PSM length is an independent predictor of clinical failure following RP. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Urologia Internationalis 08/2014; 93(3). DOI:10.1159/000362342 · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The scarcity of effective therapeutic approaches for prostate cancer (PCa) has encouraged steadily growing interest for the identification of novel antigenic targets. Placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1) is a novel cancer-testis antigen with reported ectopic expression in a variety of tumors and cancer cell lines. The purpose of the present study was to investigate for the first time the differential expression of PLAC1 in PCa tissues.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00262-014-1594-z · 3.94 Impact Factor

Similar Publications