Staging of prostate cancer

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
Histopathology (Impact Factor: 3.3). 01/2012; 60(1):87-117. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2011.04025.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

Download full-text


Available from: Liang Cheng, Mar 26, 2014
1 Follower
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC), in Iran, is the third most frequently diagnosed visceral cancer among men and the seventh most common underlying cause of cancer mortality. We evaluated the relation between speculated factors and PC risk using data from a multicentric case-control study conducted in Iran from 2005 to 2007 on 130 cases of incident, clinicopathologically confirmed PC, and 75 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals without any malignant disease. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. The risk of PC was increased with aging (OR: 5.35, 95% CI: 2.17-13.19; P<0.0001), and with the number of sexual intercourse >or=2 times/week (OR: 3.14, 95% CI: 1.2-8.2; P=0.02). One unit elevation in serum estradiol and testosterone concentration was related to increase (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06; P=0.006) and decrease (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.96; P=0.02) of PC risk, respectively. Cases were less likely to have a history of diabetes (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12-0.98; P=0.04). Increasing in dietary consumption of lycopene and fat was associated with declined (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.09-2.12) and increased (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 0.29-19.4) PC development, respectively. Other factors including educational level, marriage status, dietary meat consumption, vasectomy and smoking have not been shown to affect PC risk in the Iranian population. Our study adds further information on the potential risk factors of PC and is the first epidemiologic report from Iran. However, justification of these results requires more well-designed studies with a larger number of participants.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 8(3):422-8. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer 02/1981; 78:1-19.