Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers
ABSTRACT Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published.
All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of Trondheim, Norway, who attended the regular community health check-up for 4-year-olds (97.2% of eligible children) whose parents consented to take part in the study (N = 2,475, 82.0%) were screened for behavioral and emotional problems with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). A screen-stratified subsample of 1,250 children took part in a furthermore comprehensive study including a structured diagnostic interview (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, PAPA), which 995 parents (79.6%) completed.
The estimated population rate for any psychiatric disorder (excluding encopresis - 6.4%) was 7.1%. The most common disorders were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (1.9%), oppositional defiant disorder (1.8%), conduct disorder (0.7%), anxiety disorders (1.5%), and depressive disorders (2.0%). Comorbidity among disorders was common. More emotional and behavioral disorders were seen in children whose parents did not live together and in those of low socioeconomic status. Boys more often had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders than girls.
The prevalence of disorders among preschoolers was lower than in previous studies from the USA. Comorbidity was frequent and there was a male preponderance in ADHD and depression at this early age. These results underscore the fact that the most common disorders of childhood can already be diagnosed in preschoolers. However, rates of disorder in Norway may be lower than in the USA.
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- "Two birth cohorts of children (born in 2003 or 2004) and their parents living in the city of Trondheim, Norway were invited to participate in the Trondheim Early Secure Study. Details of the procedure and recruitment have been presented elsewhere (Wichstrøm et al., 2012); only a brief outline is provided here. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) 4 –16 version (Goodman, 1997), together with an invitation letter, was mailed to the parents (N ϭ 3,456). "
ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in aggression. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT), a common, functional polymorphism, has been implicated in aggression and aggression traits, as have childhood experiences of adversity. It is unknown whether these effects are additive or interactional and, in the case of interaction, whether they conform to a diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility model. We examined Gene × Environment interactions between COMT and serious life events on measures of childhood aggression and contrasted these 2 models. The sample was composed of community children (N = 704); 355 were boys, and the mean age was 54.8 months (SD = 3.0). The children were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and assessed for serious life events and by teacher-rated aggression. Regression analysis showed no main effects of COMT and serious life events on aggression. However, a significant interactive effect of childhood serious life events and COMT genotype was observed: Children who had faced many serious life events and were Val homozygotes exhibited more aggression (p = .02) than did their Met-carrying counterparts. Notably, in the absence of serious life events, Val homozygotes displayed significantly lower aggression scores than did Met carriers (p = .03). When tested, this constellation of findings conformed to the differential susceptibility hypothesis: In this case, Val homozygotes are more malleable to the effect of serious life events on aggression and not simply more vulnerable to the negative effect of having experienced many serious life events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).Developmental Psychology 06/2015; DOI:10.1037/dev0000020 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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- "Finally the rate of depression in our study is higher than in the general population of the same age, with general population studies reporting rates of 2.1 and 2.0 % respectively (Egger and Angold 2006; Wichstrom et al. 2012). Our rate of ADHD, 59.1 %, and its association with male sex, is consistent with other studies (de Bruin et al. 2007; Mukaddes et al. 2010; Witwer et al. 2012) although slightly higher than others (Leyfer et al. 2006; Simonoff et al. 2008). "
ABSTRACT: We employed a clinical sample of young children with ASD, with and without intellectual disability, to determine the rate and type of psychiatric disorders and possible association with risk factors. We assessed 101 children (57 males, 44 females) aged 4.5-9.8 years. 90.5 % of the sample met the criteria. Most common diagnoses were: generalized anxiety disorder (66.5 %), specific phobias (52.7 %) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (59.1 %). Boys were more likely to have oppositional defiant disorder (OR 3.9). Higher IQ was associated with anxiety disorders (OR 2.9) and older age with agoraphobia (OR 5.8). Night terrors was associated with parental psychological distress (OR 14.2). Most young ASD children met the criteria for additional psychopathology.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 03/2015; 45(8). DOI:10.1007/s10803-015-2361-5 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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- "SM is relatively rare, with a prevalence of about 0.7–0.8% in childhood, somewhat more frequent in girls (Bergman, Piacentini, & McCracken , 2002). A 0.1% prevalence of SM was found in a representative sample of Norwegian 4 year olds using a preschool diagnostic interview (Wichstrom et al., 2012). SM is considered to be hard to treat and the literature on treatment for SM is dominated by case studies or case series. "
ABSTRACT: Background Randomized controlled psychosocial treatment studies on selective mutism (SM) are lacking. Method Overall, 24 children with SM, aged 3–9 years, were randomized to 3 months treatment (n = 12) or wait list (n = 12). Primary outcome measure was the School Speech Questionnaire. ResultsA significant time by group interaction was found (p = .029) with significantly increased speech in the treatment group (p = .004) and no change in wait list controls (p = .936). A time by age interaction favoured younger children (p = .029). Clinical trail registration: Norwegian Research CouncilNCT01002196. Conclusions The treatment significantly improved speech. Greater improvement in the younger age group highlights the importance of an early intervention.Child and Adolescent Mental Health 09/2014; 19(3):192-194. DOI:10.1111/camh.12045 · 0.95 Impact Factor