Article

Polarity sets the stage for cytokinesis.

Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Molecular biology of the cell (Impact Factor: 5.98). 01/2012; 23(1):7-11. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E11-06-0512
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cell polarity is important for a number of processes, from chemotaxis to embryogenesis. Recent studies suggest a new role for polarity in the orchestration of events during the final cell separation step of cell division called abscission. Abscission shares several features with cell polarization, including rearrangement of phosphatidylinositols, reorganization of microtubules, and trafficking of exocyst-associated membranes. Here we focus on how the canonical pathways for cell polarization and cell migration may play a role in spatiotemporal membrane trafficking events required for the final stages of cytokinesis.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Heidi Hehnly, Jun 27, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
135 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To treat many types of cancer, ionizing radiation (IR) is primarily used as external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and targeted radionuclide therapy. Exposure of tumor cells to IR can induce DNA damage as well as generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which can cause non-DNA lesions or extracellular damage like lipid perioxidation. The initial radiation-induced cell responses to DNA damage and ROS like the proteolytic processing, as well as synthesis and releasing ligands (such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormone) can cause the delayed secondary responses in irradiated and unirradiated bystander cells through paracrine and autocrine pathways.
    Chinese Journal of Cancer Research 06/2012; 24(2):83-9. DOI:10.1007/s11670-012-0083-1 · 0.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the final stage of cell division, the future daughter cells are physically separated through abscission. This process requires coordination of many molecular machines, including endocytic and secretory vesicle trafficking proteins as well as ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) proteins, that mediate a complex series of events to culminate in the final separation of daughter cells. Abscission is coordinated with other cellular processes (for example, nuclear pore reassembly) through mitotic kinases such as Aurora B and Polo-like kinase 1, which act as master regulators to ensure proper progression of abscission.
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 07/2012; 13(8):483-8. DOI:10.1038/nrm3395 · 36.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Discs-large (DLG) is a multi-PDZ domain-containing protein that belongs to the family of molecular scaffolding proteins known as membrane guanylate kinases or MAGUKs. DLG is a component of the Scribble polarity complex and genetic analyses of DLG in Drosophila have identified a role for the protein in several key biological processes including the regulation of apico-basal polarity of epithelial cells, as well as other polarity processes such as asymmetric cell division and cell invasion. Disturbance of DLG function leads to uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation, thereby defining DLG as a potential tumour suppressor. However, whether mammalian homologues of DLG (DLG1, DLG2, DLG3 and DLG4) also possess tumour suppressor functions is not known. In this minireview, we focus on the biological functions of DLG1 in human epithelial cells and on how the function of this MAGUK relates to its intracellular location. We examine some of the evidence that implies that DLG has both tumour suppressor and, paradoxically, oncogenic functions depending upon the precise cellular context.
    FEBS Journal 07/2012; 279(19):3549-58. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2012.08729.x · 3.99 Impact Factor