The pivot shift: a global user guide.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 3200 S Water Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, USA.
Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy (Impact Factor: 2.68). 03/2012; 20(4):724-31. DOI: 10.1007/s00167-011-1859-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of several different maneuvers for the pivot shift test has resulted in inconsistent quantitative measurements. The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze, and group several surgeon-specific techniques for the pivot shift test and to propose a standardized pivot shift test.
Twelve expert surgeons examined a whole lower cadaveric extremity with their preferred technique and assigned a clinical grade, I-III. Anterior tibial translation and acceleration were measured using an electromagnetic system. The test was repeated after watching an instructional video focused on a standardized pivot shift technique. Measurements were repeated and compared with the preferred technique.
The expert surgeons utilized valgus stress unanimously in addition to fixed internal rotation (n = 5), fixed external rotation (n = 1), a motion-allowing technique (n = 3), a dislocation-type maneuver (n = 2), and a fixed anterior drawer type of maneuver in extension (n = 1). Anterior tibial translation measured was on average 15.9 ± 3.7 mm. Average tibial acceleration was 3.3 ± 2.1 mm/s(2). Average clinical grading was 2.3 ± 0.5. There were no differences in average clinical grading when using high stress (2.5 ± 0.6) versus low stress (2.3 ± 0.5, n.s.), or using fixed rotation (2.2 ± 0.5) versus a motion-allowing technique (2.3 ± 0.6; n.s.).
Clinical grading, tibial translation, and acceleration vary between examiners performing the pivot shift test. High forces and extremes of rotation are not necessary to produce a clinical detectable pivot shift. In the future, a standardized pivot shift test-which can be performed universally and utilizes only gentle forces allowing motion to occur-may be beneficial when assessing differences in outcome following ACL reconstruction.

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study aims to identify and summarize the evidence on the biomechanical parameters and the corresponding technologies which have been used to quantify the pivot shift test during the clinical and functional assessment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and surgical reconstruction. METHODS: Search strategy Internet search of indexed scientific articles on the PubMed database, Web of Science and references on published manuscripts. No year restriction was used. Selection criteria Articles included were written only in English and related to search terms: "pivot shift" AND (OR "ACL"). The reviewers independently selected only those studies that included at least one quantitative parameter for the analysis of the pivot shift test, including both in vitro and in vivo analyses performed on human joint. Those studies that analysed only clinical grading were excluded from the analysis. Analysis After evaluating the methodological quality of the articles, the parameters found were summarized. RESULTS: Six hundred and eight studies met the inclusion criteria, and finally, 68 unique studies were available for the systematic review. Quantitative results were heterogeneous. The pivot shift test has been quantified by means of 25 parameters, but most of the studies focused on anterior-posterior translations, internal-external rotation and acceleration in anterior-posterior direction. CONCLUSION: Several methodologies have been identified and developed to quantify pivot shift test. However, clinical professionals are still lacking a 'gold standard' method for the quantification of knee joint dynamic laxity. A widespread adoption of a standardized pivot shift manoeuvre and measurement method to allow objective comparison of the results of ACL reconstructions is therefore desirable. Further development of measurement methods is indeed required to achieve this goal in a routine clinical scenario. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic review of-at least-level II studies, Level II.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 03/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pivot shift has been correlated with patient-reported outcomes and knee function following ACL injury and reconstruction. Tibial rotation has been recognized as an important component to the pivot shift motion path. However, few methodologies exist to quantify tibial rotation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a wireless gyroscopic sensor to measure axial rotation of the tibia during a manually simulated pivot shift manoeuvre in cadaveric specimens. We hypothesized that integrated gyroscopic measurements of tibial rotation velocity (tibial rotation) would be highly correlated with tibial rotations simultaneously recorded with a rotary potentiometer during a simulated pivot shift motion under intact and ACL-deficient conditions. Gyroscopic measurements of rotational velocity were integrated and calibrated to a known arc of rotation. The gyroscope was mounted on the distal tibia with its axis aligned to the tibial shaft. Ten simulations of a pivot shift motion pathway were performed on nine cadaveric knees under intact and ACL-deficient conditions. Logistic regression was used to compare gyroscopic and potentiometer measurements of tibial rotation for both test conditions. Gyroscopic measurements of maximum external tibial rotation during the simulated pivot shift motion pathway were strongly correlated with potentiometer measurements of external tibial rotation in both the intact and ACL-deficient states (R (2) = 0.984). The gyroscope evaluated in this cadaveric study was capable of accurately recording tibial rotation during a simulated pivot shift motion pathway.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 05/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pivot shift test is the only physical examination test capable of predicting knee function and osteoarthritis development after an ACL injury. However, because interpretation and performance of the pivot shift are subjective in nature, the validity of the pivot shift is criticized for not providing objective information for a complete surgical planning for the treatment of rotatory knee laxity. The aim of ACL reconstruction was eliminating the pivot shift sign. Many structures and anatomical characteristics can influence the grading of the pivot shift test and are involved in the genesis and magnitude of rotatory instability after an ACL injury. The objective quantification of the pivot shift may be able to categorize knee laxity and provide adequate information on which structures are affected besides the ACL. A new algorithm for rotational instability treatment is presented, accounting for patients' unique anatomical characteristics and objective measurement of the pivot shift sign allowing for an individualized surgical treatment. Level of evidence V.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 03/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor

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