Article

Erratum to: The pivot shift: a global user guide

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 3200 S Water Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203, USA.
Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy (Impact Factor: 2.84). 03/2012; 20(4):724-31. DOI: 10.1007/s00167-011-1859-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of several different maneuvers for the pivot shift test has resulted in inconsistent quantitative measurements. The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze, and group several surgeon-specific techniques for the pivot shift test and to propose a standardized pivot shift test.
Twelve expert surgeons examined a whole lower cadaveric extremity with their preferred technique and assigned a clinical grade, I-III. Anterior tibial translation and acceleration were measured using an electromagnetic system. The test was repeated after watching an instructional video focused on a standardized pivot shift technique. Measurements were repeated and compared with the preferred technique.
The expert surgeons utilized valgus stress unanimously in addition to fixed internal rotation (n = 5), fixed external rotation (n = 1), a motion-allowing technique (n = 3), a dislocation-type maneuver (n = 2), and a fixed anterior drawer type of maneuver in extension (n = 1). Anterior tibial translation measured was on average 15.9 ± 3.7 mm. Average tibial acceleration was 3.3 ± 2.1 mm/s(2). Average clinical grading was 2.3 ± 0.5. There were no differences in average clinical grading when using high stress (2.5 ± 0.6) versus low stress (2.3 ± 0.5, n.s.), or using fixed rotation (2.2 ± 0.5) versus a motion-allowing technique (2.3 ± 0.6; n.s.).
Clinical grading, tibial translation, and acceleration vary between examiners performing the pivot shift test. High forces and extremes of rotation are not necessary to produce a clinical detectable pivot shift. In the future, a standardized pivot shift test-which can be performed universally and utilizes only gentle forces allowing motion to occur-may be beneficial when assessing differences in outcome following ACL reconstruction.

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    ABSTRACT: The pivot shift has been correlated with patient-reported outcomes and knee function following ACL injury and reconstruction. Tibial rotation has been recognized as an important component to the pivot shift motion path. However, few methodologies exist to quantify tibial rotation in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a wireless gyroscopic sensor to measure axial rotation of the tibia during a manually simulated pivot shift manoeuvre in cadaveric specimens. We hypothesized that integrated gyroscopic measurements of tibial rotation velocity (tibial rotation) would be highly correlated with tibial rotations simultaneously recorded with a rotary potentiometer during a simulated pivot shift motion under intact and ACL-deficient conditions. Gyroscopic measurements of rotational velocity were integrated and calibrated to a known arc of rotation. The gyroscope was mounted on the distal tibia with its axis aligned to the tibial shaft. Ten simulations of a pivot shift motion pathway were performed on nine cadaveric knees under intact and ACL-deficient conditions. Logistic regression was used to compare gyroscopic and potentiometer measurements of tibial rotation for both test conditions. Gyroscopic measurements of maximum external tibial rotation during the simulated pivot shift motion pathway were strongly correlated with potentiometer measurements of external tibial rotation in both the intact and ACL-deficient states (R (2) = 0.984). The gyroscope evaluated in this cadaveric study was capable of accurately recording tibial rotation during a simulated pivot shift motion pathway.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00167-014-3015-4 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pivot shift test is the only physical examination test capable of predicting knee function and osteoarthritis development after an ACL injury. However, because interpretation and performance of the pivot shift are subjective in nature, the validity of the pivot shift is criticized for not providing objective information for a complete surgical planning for the treatment of rotatory knee laxity. The aim of ACL reconstruction was eliminating the pivot shift sign. Many structures and anatomical characteristics can influence the grading of the pivot shift test and are involved in the genesis and magnitude of rotatory instability after an ACL injury. The objective quantification of the pivot shift may be able to categorize knee laxity and provide adequate information on which structures are affected besides the ACL. A new algorithm for rotational instability treatment is presented, accounting for patients' unique anatomical characteristics and objective measurement of the pivot shift sign allowing for an individualized surgical treatment. Level of evidence V.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 03/2014; 22(9). DOI:10.1007/s00167-014-2928-2 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Avec la meilleure connaissance anatomique du ligament croisé antérieur (LCA), le diagnostic de lésion du LCA, partielle ou totale doit être précis pour adapter la planification préopératoire à l’état anatomique. Les mesures instrumentées de la translation tibiale antérieure sont fondamentales pour quantifier l’importance de la laxité du genou. Plusieurs tests laximétriques sont disponibles, mais leur exactitude respective reste à établir. Hypothèse La combinaison de l’examen clinique et d’une mesure instrumentée par le Telos™ à 15 kg et/ou le Rolimeter™ améliore la sensibilité et la spécificité du diagnostic du type de rupture du LCA. Patients et méthode Cent soixante-dix-sept patients ont été inclus de façon prospective. La validation du type lésionnel étant faite par arthroscopie. Le taux de 69,5 % avait une rupture complète et 30,5 % une rupture partielle. Résultat Les laxités antérieures importantes avec des tests cliniques positifs étaient associées aux ruptures complètes du LCA. Le différentiel des translations tibiales antérieures était augmenté de façon significative dans les deux méthodes d’évaluation laximétrique. Une différence significative existait entre les ruptures partielles et les ruptures complètes. On ne pouvait établir de différence entre les types de lésions partielles. Le résultat du Telos™ était fiable dans les laxités importantes avec un ressaut positif alors que ce n’était pas toujours le cas avec le Rolimeter™. Les laxités importantes avec des tests cliniques positifs et une translation tibiale antérieure différentielle de plus de 5 mm au Telos™ montraient une association significative avec des ruptures complètes du LCA. Discussion La combinaison de l’examen clinique au Telos™ est plus précise qu’avec le Rolimeter™ dans l’identification préopératoire du type de rupture du LCA. L’utilisation de ces instruments diagnostiques peut aider le chirurgien dans le diagnostic différentiel entre ruptures partielles et complètes et dans le choix d’une chirurgie adaptée à l’état anatomique du patient. Niveau de preuve Niveau III étude cas contrôle.
    Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique 11/2012; 98(7):685–692. DOI:10.1016/j.rcot.2012.08.269

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