Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage in human amnion epithelial (WISH) cells.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Toxicology in Vitro (Impact Factor: 2.65). 12/2011; 26(2):351-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2011.12.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)-NPs) induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage have been investigated using human amnion epithelial (WISH) cells, as an in vitro model for nanotoxicity assessment. Crystalline, polyhedral rutile TiO(2)-NPs were synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. The neutral red uptake (NRU) and [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assays revealed the concentration dependent cytotoxic effects of TiO(2)-NPs (30.6nm) in concentration range of 0.625-10μg/ml. Cells exposed to TiO(2)-NPs (10μg/ml) exhibited significant reduction (46.3% and 34.6%; p<0.05) in catalase activity and glutathione (GSH) level, respectively. Treated cells showed 1.87-fold increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and 7.3% (p<0.01) increase in G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, as compared to the untreated control. TiO(2)-NPs treated cells also demonstrated the formation of DNA double strand breaks with 14.6-fold (p<0.05) increase in Olive tail moment (OTM) value at 20μg/ml concentration, vis-à-vis untreated control, under neutral comet assay conditions. Thus, the reduction in cell viability, morphological alterations, compromised antioxidant system, intracellular ROS production, and significant DNA damage in TiO(2)-NPs exposed cells signify the potential of these NPs to induce cyto- and genotoxicity in cultured WISH cells.

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May 22, 2014