Emerging cellular networks for regulation of T follicular helper cells.
ABSTRACT The cellular networks that regulate humoral immune responses have been a focus of research over the past three decades. Studies have shown that inhibition of immune responses can be attributed to both suppressor T cells and B cells. More recently, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have been identified as a target of immune regulation. Tfh cells are a subset of highly activated T helper cells specialized for providing cognate help to B cells during germinal center reactions. In this review, we describe emerging evidence for cellular networks that alter Tfh cell phenotype and function and regulate antibody production during the germinal center reaction. We discuss how these new findings influence our understanding of Tfh cells.