Whole-Genome Sequences of Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia valaisiana, and
Steven E. Schutzer,aClaire M. Fraser-Liggett,bWei-Gang Qiu,cPeter Kraiczy,dEmmanuel F. Mongodin,bJohn J. Dunn,e
Benjamin J. Luft,fand Sherwood R. Casjensg
Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey—New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USAa; Institute for Genome Sciences,
University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Baltimore, Maryland, USAb; Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College
of the City University of New York, New York, New York, USAc; Institute of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main,
Germanyd; Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USAe; Department of Medicine, Health Science Center, Stony Brook University, Stony
Brook, New York, USAf; and Department of Pathology, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Utah Medical School, Salt Lake City, Utah, USAg
It has been known for decades that human Lyme disease is caused by the three spirochete species Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia
afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. Recently, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia bissettii have been associated with
Lyme disease. We report the complete genome sequences of B. valaisiana VS116, B. spielmanii A14S, and B. bissettii DN127.
while in Europe and eastern Asia Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii,
ence 15 and references therein); however, more recently, Borrelia
he bacteria that cause human Lyme disease belong to a group
of at least 15 species, referred to as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu
Borrelia sincia in Asia, have not been associated with human dis-
ease. To date, genome sequences have been reported for 14 B.
unassigned species (2).
We report here the complete genome sequences for three ad-
ditional Borrelia species: B. valaisiana isolate VS116 (from an
Ixodes rinicus tick [Switzerland]) (14, 18), B. bissettii isolate
DN127 clone 9 (Ixodes pacificus tick [northern California]) (12),
and B. spielmanii isolate A14S (human skin [The Netherlands])
(21). DNA samples from low-passage isolates were sequenced to
minimize plasmid loss, and genomes were sequenced to about
8-fold coverage as previously described (13). Genome annotation
was performed using the JCVI Prokaryotic Annotation Pipeline
The DN127 chromosome and 35 of 39 plasmid sequence contigs
were closed, but in order to maximize the use of available funds,
the sequences of a few replicons were not closed and some gaps
remained in these sequences (two chromosomes and one cp9 and
three cp32 plasmids, because they are much less variable than the
These three genome sequences include 3,914,891 bp in total
(1,258,865, 1,403,466, and 1,252,560 bp for strains VS116,
DN127, and A14S, respectively), with an average of 1,304,497 bp/
numerous linear plasmids (6, 7, and 7, respectively) and circular
plasmids (2, 2, and 2, respectively). Plasmid numbers in these
three strains range from 11 in VS116 and 12 in A14S to 16 in
DN127. Plasmids that are very similar to B. burgdorferi sensu
stricto cp26, cp32 (7 in DN127, versus 3 in the other two strains
analyzed), and lp54 plasmids are present in each of these isolates,
Received 18 October 2011 Accepted 21 October 2011
Address correspondence to Steven Schutzer, email@example.com.
Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
TABLE 1 B. valaisiana, B. bissettii, and B. spielmanii sequence
Accession no. for strain (GPID)b
B. valaisiana VS116
B. bissettii DN127
B. spielmanii A14S
ABKB02000001 to -13c
Fused to cp32-quad
Fused to cp32-quad
ABKB02000014, -15, -17
to -19, -22 to -25, -27
to -30, -32 to -41c,d
aPlasmids are named according to their PFam32 partition/replication protein (see
Casjens et al. ).
bGenome project ID number.
cDraft sequence; contigs not joined.
dAll but ABKC02000036 are cp32-like.
eUnlike other cp9 plasmids in B. burgdorferi, VS116 cp9 (and probably a very similar
sequence in A14S) carries a parA-type gene in the partition gene cluster.
fThe DN127 plasmid that carries cp32-9, cp32-12, and cp32-13 type partition genes
(i.e., is a fusion between these three plasmids and a fourth whose partition genes are
deleted) was named cp32-quad.
0021-9193/12/$12.00Journal of Bacteriologyp. 545–546jb.asm.org
and DN127 also contains an unusual fusion of four partial cp32
plasmids. Plasmids with predicted lp17 compatibility (3) are also
present in all three genomes, making it the only other plasmid
type, in addition to cp26 and lp54, to be found in all 23 B. burg-
of the lp17s are much more variable than the other universally
The detailed analyses of these genome sequences will be a ma-
dorferi sensu lato diversity. They will contribute to the develop-
as well as inform us whether these species are in genetic contact
with the more-common Lyme disease-associated agents. These
foundational sequencing efforts can now be further developed
with the use of evolving deep sequencing methods.
Nucleotide sequence accession numbers. The nucleotide se-
quences for these three strains and relevant replicons have been
deposited in the GenBank database, and their accession numbers
are listed in Table 1.
This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of
Health: AI49003, AI37256 N01-AI30071, GM083722, and RR03037.
We thank P. Rosa for strain DN127.
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