Determinants of Acute Kidney Injury Duration After Cardiac Surgery: An Externally Validated Tool
ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) duration after cardiac surgery is associated with poor survival in a dose-dependent manner. However, it is not known what perioperative risk factors contribute to prolonged AKI and delayed recovery. We sought to identify perioperative risk factors that predict duration of AKI, a complication that effects short and long-term survival.
We studied 4,987 consecutive cardiac surgery patients from 2002 through 2007. Acute kidney injury was defined as a 0.3 or greater (mg/dL) or 50% or greater increase in serum creatinine from baseline. Duration of AKI was defined by the number of days AKI was present. Stepwise multivariable negative binomial regression analysis was conducted using perioperative risk factors for AKI duration. The c-index was estimated by Kendall's tau.
Acute kidney injury developed in 39% of patients with a median duration of AKI at 3 days and ranged from 1 to 108 days. Patients without AKI had a duration of 0 days. Independent predictors of AKI duration included baseline patient and disease characteristics, and operative and postoperative factors. Prediction for mean duration of AKI was developed using coefficients from the regression model and externally validated the model on 1,219 cardiac surgery patients in a separate cardiac surgery cohort (Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints-AKI). The c-index was 0.65 (p<0.001) for the derivation cohort and 0.62 (p<0.001) for the validation cohort.
We identified and externally validated perioperative predictors of AKI duration. These risk factors will be useful to evaluate a patient's risk for the tempo of recovery from AKI after cardiac surgery and subsequent short and long-term survival. The levels of awareness created by working with these risk factors have implications regarding positive changes in processes of care that have the potential to decrease the incidence and mitigate AKI.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jeremiah R Brown, Jan 23, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common but complex clinical syndrome with multiple etiologies. These etiologies target different sites and pathways within the kidney. Novel biomarkers of 'kidney damage' (which can be tubular or glomerular) can be used to diagnose AKI, even in the absence of an increase in serum creatinine or oliguria. These biomarkers of kidney damage can be combined with biomarkers of kidney function to facilitate classification of AKI. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed using the published methodology of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) working group and used to establish consensus statements regarding the use of biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of AKI. We recommend that the pathophysiological terms 'functional change' and 'kidney damage' be used in preference to the anatomical classification using the terms pre-renal, renal and post-renal AKI. We further recommend the use of both renal and non-renal biomarkers in establishing the specific cause of AKI as soon as possible after diagnosis. The presence of underlying CKD or of sepsis poses additional challenges in differential diagnosis, since these conditions alter both baseline biomarker excretion and biomarker performance. We recommend that biomarkers be validated within the clinical context in which they are to be used. Within that context, combinations of biomarkers may, in the future, allow differentiation of the site, mechanism and phase of injury.Contributions to nephrology 01/2013; 182:30-44. DOI:10.1159/000349964
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ABSTRACT: Of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the United States, 15% to 20% are re-hospitalized within 30 days. Current models to predict readmission have not evaluated the association between severity of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and 30-day readmissions. We collected data from 2,209 consecutive patients who underwent either coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at 7 member hospitals of the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group Cardiac Surgery Registry between July 2008 and December 2010. Administrative data at each hospital were searched to identify all patients readmitted to the index hospital within 30 days of discharge. We defined AKI stages by the AKI Network definition of 0.3 or 50% increase (stage 1), twofold increase (stage 2), and a threefold or 0.5 increase if the baseline serum creatinine was at least 4.0 (mg/dL) or new dialysis (stage 3). We evaluate the association between stages of AKI and 30-day readmission using multivariate logistic regression. There were 260 patients readmitted within 30 days (12.1%). The median time to readmission was 9 (interquartile range, 4 to 16) days. Patients not developing AKI after cardiac surgery had a 30-day readmission rate of 9.3% compared with patients developing AKI stage 1 (16.1%), AKI stage 2 (21.8%), and AKI stage 3 (28.6%, p < 0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for AKI stage 1 (1.81; 1.35, 2.44), stage 2 (2.39; 1.38, 4.14), and stage 3 (3.47; 1.85 to 6.50). Models to predict readmission were significantly improved with the addition of AKI stage (c-statistic 0.65, p = 0.001) and net reclassification rate of 14.6% (95% confidence interval: 5.05% to 24.14%, p = 0.003). In addition to more traditional patient characteristics, the severity of postoperative AKI should be used when assessing a patient's risk for readmission.The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2013; 97(1). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.07.090
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ABSTRACT: Two distinct and large bodies of literature exist on resilience that are of potential interest for surgical outcomes. First is the literature on the impact of resilience on surgical recovery and wound-healing. Second is the literature on biomarkers for resilience, which largely focuses on neuropeptide Y (NPY), testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Despite this activity, there is a dearth of literature linking these two bodies of research by investigating biomarkers for surgical resilience and its impact on surgical recovery. This paper reviews both bodies of literature within the context of surgical recovery. Literature searches within Medline and Embase were conducted for studies and previous reviews of resilience biomarkers and for the impact of individual resilience on surgical recovery. Reference lists of the reviews were searched for additional papers. No systematic review is yet possible due to the novelty of the use of resilience biomarkers within a surgical context. This is the first review to explore a potential link between resilience biomarkers and surgical recovery. There are a number of biomarkers that correlate with individual resilience levels and resilient individuals exhibit better recovery trajectories following surgery, suggesting a novel use of such biomarkers for the identification of "surgical resilience". By identifying surgical resilience, there is potential for utilising these biomarkers as prognostic indicators of likely recovery trajectories from surgery, which in turn complement individualised peri-operative management.The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.surge.2014.03.006